Design

Good design in 10 commandments

Back in the early 1980s, Dieter Rams was becoming increasingly concerned by the state of the world around him – “an impenetrable confusion of forms, colours and noises.” Aware that he was a significant contributor to that world, he asked himself an important question: is my design good design?

As good design cannot be measured in a finite way he set about expressing the ten most important criteria for what he considered was good design. Subsequently they have become known as the ‘Ten commandments’.

Here they are:


Good design is innovative

It does not copy existing product forms, nor does it produce any kind of novelty for the sake of it. The essence of innovation must be clearly seen in all functions of a product. The possibilities in this respect are by no means exhausted. Technological development keeps offering new chances for innovative solutions.



Good design makes a product useful

A product is bought in order to be used. It must serve a defined purpose – in both primary and additional functions. The most important task of design is to optimise the utility of a product.



Good design is aesthetic

The aesthetic quality of a product – and the fascination it inspires – is an integral part of its utility. Without doubt, it is uncomfortable and tiring to have to put up with products that are confusing, that get on your nerves, that you are unable to relate to. However, it has always been a hard task to argue about aesthetic quality, for two reasons.

Firstly, it is difficult to talk about anything visual, since words have a different meaning for different people.

Secondly, aesthetic quality deals with details, subtle shades, harmony and the equilibrium of a whole variety of visual elements. A good eye is required, schooled by years and years of experience, in order to be able to draw the right conclusion.



Good design helps a product to be understood

It clarifies the structure of the product. Better still, it can make the product talk. At best, it is self-explanatory and saves you the long, tedious perusal of the operating manual.



Good design is unobtrusive

Products that satisfy this criterion are tools. They are neither decorative objects nor works of art. Their design should therefore be both neutral and restrained leaving room for the user’s self-expression.



Good design is honest

An honestly-designed product must not claim features – more innovative, more efficient, of higher value – it does not have. It must not influence or manipulate buyers and users.



Good design is durable

It is nothing trendy that might be out-of-date tomorrow. This is one of the major differences between well-designed products and trivial objects for a waste-producing society. Waste must no longer be tolerated.



Good design is thorough to the last detail

Thoroughness and accuracy of design are synonymous with the product and its functions, as seen through the eyes of the user.



Good design is concerned with the environment

Design must contribute towards a stable environment and a sensible use of raw materials. This means considering not only actual pollution, but also the visual pollution and destruction of our environment.



Good design is as little design as possible

Back to purity, back to simplicity.


Standard
Design

Retrospect and Prospect


翻译了大概全文的一半。。。实在翻不下去了。。翻了这么多也没明白这老人家到底要表达个什么准确的意思。。。就这样吧,先撂这里,以后再补完这个半成品。。。


Retrospect and Prospect
from “The City in History:Its Origins,Its Transformations,and Its Prospect”

by Lewis Munford
translated by buZz


古老的城市将日常生活中散落的片断聚集到了一起,在城墙之内促进了它们的相互影响与融合。城市的日常功能固然很重要,但从提高交流与合作的效率中体现的城市的日常用途则更有意义。城市游走于掌管天文的祭司所揭示的宇宙规律与统治者求统一的努力之间。第一种形式存在于庙宇及其神圣的周边,第二种则产生于城堡和城墙之内。城市挑动至今未被触及的人们的渴望,并将他们聚集到一个政治的、宗教的核心中来,因此,它也有能力处理大量仍在繁衍的腐朽文化。


秩序建立之后,大部分人便第一次投入到有效的和合作中。美索不达米亚、埃及和印度河流域的原始城市居民在统一的指挥下组成了纪律严明的工作团队,他们治理洪水,抵御暴风,贮存水源,重塑地形,建立起用于交通联络的庞大的水路网,注满城市蓄水池以便他人使用。城市的管理者们适时的为城市里的各类人群创立了一系列的规则与公正制度,靠自觉的努力,获得了一些道德的稳固和与乡村的互助。在城市这个大舞台上正上演着生活的全新一幕。


在这些进步之外,我们还必须指出城市文明带来的负面效应:战争、奴隶制、职业的过度分化,并且在许多地方有一种向着死亡的持续趋势。这些机构和行为,导致了一种“消极共生”的状态,并且贯穿大部分城市的历史,至今已变得更加严重,没有了当初宗教上的认可,成为人类发展最大的威胁。古代城市这些正面和负面的因素在一定程度上都被继承到了后来的城市结构中去。


通过集中物质与文化的力量,城市加快了人们生活交流的节奏,并且将人们的产品转换为固定的形式,以便储存和再造。通过模范的作用,成文的记录,以及规范的集合的习俗,城市在空间与时间上扩展了人们活动的领域。凭借保存方面的便利设备(建筑物、地下室、档案、纪念碑、书籍)城市可以将复杂的文化一代代传播,它不仅集中了物质文明,还有不能中断的极其重要的人类精神文明。这点至今仍是城市最伟大的贡献。与城市复杂的人类秩序相比,我们当今用来保存和传播信息的高科技装置显得多么粗俗与无能。


从某种程度上说,各种城市后来的形式都是从原始的城市形态(庙宇、城堡、乡村、作坊、市场的一种集合)中获得了它们的物质结构和社会功能。不光那些从庙宇和乡村中衍变出来的部分,这些结构中的很多至今仍对人们的交流沟通有着积极的作用。无论在家庭还是邻里,没有了主要人群的积极参与,基本的道德标准(尊重他人,尊重生命)能否不被玷污的传给下一代确实值得怀疑。


考虑另一种极端情况,那些各种各样的不能够使人们抽象化和象征化的合作在生活中只有一小部分被记录下来的情况下能否脱离城市而存在也无法令人确信。在一片有限的城市区域中,尽管人们各种类型的行为与各种层次的体验难免有重叠,生活中的大部分内容还是要被强制记录下来。交流的范围越广,参与的人数就越多,人们的需求就越强烈,他们需要大量的、便利的、长期的用于面对面交流和适宜各层次人群定期聚会的场所。


那些昨早出现于古代城市(比如希腊城邦)的基本的活动和价值观的复兴因此也就成为了未来城市发展的一个主要条件。我们对于机械化的欢呼无法取代人类的语言、戏剧以及我们的社交圈和关系网。正是这些维持着人类文化的生长和繁衍,没有这些,整个外在的精妙的结构都将没有意义--对生活的意义实际上还是有害的。


如今,城市物质的尺度和人的范围早已改变;大部分城市的内在的功能与结构必须被重新设定以利于为一个更重要的目的服务:人类内在与外在生活的统一,以及人类自身的革新统一。城市在未来将扮演一个积极的角色,将地区、文化、人性的多样化与个性化发展到极致。以下使一些附加的目的:他们的替代品是如今那些折磨城市景观与人性的机械化,现代人离开了城市无法抵御机械化的洪流,后者使人类多样的生活变得多余过剩,除非是那些还未被机器统治的从属领域。


当今我们所处的时代,生产与城市扩张的不断加速的自动化进程已经取代了人类所设想的目标。大规模生产成为了(被大部分所接受)唯一的必须的目标:只重视数量而非质量。这种空洞的扩张与膨胀盛行于自然界中、工业化大生产中、发明创造中、知识界中以及人群中。这些行为在数量与速度上不断加大,它们已经离人类想要的目标越来越远。结果,人类被前所未有的难以应付的困难所威胁。要自救,人类就必须集中精力控制、引导、组织、驾驭那些愚蠢的力量到正常的遵循生理与文化需求的轨道上来,一面因其庞大的数量而毁了人们的生活。人们必须控制它们甚至消灭它们,比如当出现会威胁人类存在的核武器或细菌武器时。


现在,不仅是一条河谷,而是整个地球都应该在人类的控制之下:不是一次洪水,而是一次能量的恶意释放就会毁掉人类赖以生存的生态系统。如今我们的主要任务便是为那些脱离正常规模与限制的过剩的能源与精力创造发泄的途径:文化洪水的控制需要我们建立堤坝与蓄水池去分担水量并将其分流至最终目的地,也就是那些能够利用这种力量来发展自己的城市、地区、组织、家庭以及个人。如果我们打算恢复地球的居住性并以人类的灵魂去耕耘荒地,就不该被那些徒劳的逃避现实的开发星球内部空间的计划以及更加可怕的基于大规模屠杀战略的灭绝人性的政策牵扯过多的精力,是时候回到土地上来面对生活的多姿多彩和创造力了,而不是躲在渺小的Post-historic Man*的世界中。


不幸的是,现代人仍然要克服那些危险的偏离正轨的行为,这些行为在青铜时代的城市中以制度的形式出现,并且给予人类文明成果以毁灭性的打击。与青铜时代的统治者一样,我们仍将权力视为神的意志,退一步讲,是人类发展的代理者。但是,“绝对的权力”意味着“绝对的武器”,属于神秘的宗教计划,就像人类祭祀仪式那样。这种权力破坏了人与自然界其他方面及人与人之间的共生合作关系。有机的生命只能利用限定的能量,“过多”或“过少”对于它们的存在都是致命的。有机生命、社会、人类以及城市,便是管理能量并将其服务于生命的精密设备。


城市的主要功能是将权力转化为形式,能量转化为文化,无生命的事物转化为艺术的活符号,生物性的繁殖转化为社会性的创造。城市积极的功能的实现离不开创造新的机构配置,有能力处理大量能量的现代人如今这样做:尽量大范围的安排,就像将过度成长的乡村与它的堡垒一起转化为核心的高度组织化的城市。



注:
*Post-historic Man:这到底是什么意思……WTF……

Standard
Design

The American Public Space

假期翻译的一个长篇,假期完成的是初稿,现在整理上来接近于重新翻了一遍。不过效果仍然不很满意,好多地方自己读起来仍感不妥,待有心思再完成3稿吧……

原文…好长…等用相机拍上来吧……自己是懒得敲上来了……

The American Public Space
by J.B.Jackson
translated by buZz

半个世纪前的美国经历了景观业发展中一个重要的但仍未被重视的时期。我所指的不是当时城市的发展,而是指这个发展带来的结果:全国范围内如雨后春笋般出现的种类繁多的公共空间。

公共空间通常被定义为这样一个场所(或空间):由市政当局创建并维护,对全体市民开放,供人们使用及娱乐。这个定义没有告诉我们使用和娱乐的区别,也没有指出公共空间形式上的不同。我们只是发现它们娱乐的一面,他们出现的地点也经常不在市区中心,有时甚至还在郊区。很多这样的公共空间的建造动机都带有一种教育意味——它们是历史遗迹、室外博物馆、园艺花园等等,并且更多这样的空间都正在带给我们这样一个关于自然的概括印象:到处是远足小径,充满野趣的场地与河滨。但是,当我们涉及到一些新近出现的公共空间类型时,比如停车场、垃圾处理区、高速公路,很明显,公共空间的概念就不仅仅限于娱乐,还包括使用的功能。

公共这个词本身就包含有其他人在场的含义,我们不能厌恶其他人的存在,他们和我们同样有到那里的权力。同样,许多现代公共空间都具有这样共同的特点:他们都只是简单笼统的处理人与人的交流。事实上,当过于拥挤的时候我们都会觉得不自在。我们来到公共空间不是为了上一代所说的“聚集”(togetherness),我们来是为了自己私人的体验--情感的,知觉的,感官的等一系列的集合。这并不是说我们不友好,只是我们不需要把社会交往带到每一个公共空间里。我们认为实际上是应该有专门的场所来实现社交的目的,虽然当我们需要的时候很少能找到它们。

■ Civic Space 城市空间

在美国,曾经每一个公共空间都被当成一种集体的市民的活动场所,不过现在情况已经大不相同。可以这么说,在十八世纪初,每一个公共空间--当时的每一寸土地都由正副控制--都是作为服务于公众这一整体的机构,而不是将公众视为独立个体的集合。在新英格兰一些较新规划的城镇中,一片公共用地则被划为当地教堂和教民使用,虽然仍然还不是作为公共用途。1785年的国家土地调查确立的市区规划中有一个16号区域,这是市区规划中唯一明确指出的公共空间,划归给当地学校使用。因此,校园规划至今仍然是西方景观的特征之一。那些更具有城市特征的社区认识到了供大众使用的公共空间的需求,但大概也只是为了社区自己的利益。那些在18世纪末19世纪初建成的新城无一例外的包含了明确功能的公共空间,比如市场、操场、码头、“建成的”教堂、大学校园等,当然这些也都提供给公众用来举行庆典和集会。城市性的功能是它们最显著的特征,市民在其中扮演的是一个公共性的角色。

公共(Public)是一个没有任何神秘色彩的词汇,它由拉丁语populus衍化而来,意思是属于人或具有人的属性。公共空间即是一个“人”的空间。但“人”作为一个词,所表达的意味仍然不够明显。对我们来说,它只意味着人类,或者人类的一个随机的样本。直到19世纪,它的含义才得以扩展为一个特定的组团:无论是一个国家或城镇的所有人口,还是这些人口中最基本的单位,它都是一个可识别的类别。因此英国有句俗话:“贵族,绅士,公众”(the nobility,the gentry,and the public),人们在这里暗示了一种组织,一种范围;并且作为一个组织,“人”具有组织或者说赋予形式的权力。

或许也可以这样说,作为一个名词,“公众”可以指代全部人口,也可以单独指“人”;作为一个形容词,“公众”就代表市政当局。因此,18世纪的一幢公共建筑并不是对所有人都开放,供所有人使用及娱乐,而是作为当局工作和会议的场所。

这个词的严格的政治意义有助于我们区分那些公共空间或广场的种类,这些空间和广场大部分出现在殖民及后殖民时期的美国的新城中。John Reps的三本著作(原注1)中收集的大量宝贵的规划方案向我们展示了早期的规划师及其支持者们是如何重视公共空间的重要性的。每个社区,每个城镇都是方格网似的规划,尽管它们很多都不过只是一堆街区的集合,但有一点是不变的,总有一排(或计划中)像法院、市场、这样的公共建筑对称的出现在公共用地上。

有趣的是,由于文艺复兴的影响,对于美国的殖民者与拓荒者们来说,在建筑和建筑前的广场中,前者要更加尊贵。而我们的感觉却恰恰相反:在我们喜爱的开放空间中,建筑是面对着广场的,广场是城市构成中的焦点。18世纪的人们认为,一个广场,无论多么的宽广雄伟,都是从与它相联系的建筑中获得的尊贵,它事实上仅仅是居民们聚在其中向政府致敬的场所。很多地图上标明待建的小广场都是安排在要建成居住区的区域中。这些小广场无疑将被公共建筑所包围并以此提高身价,就像William Penn在他的费城方案中规划的四个小广场一样。直到19世纪,这些小广场才被当成公园。这种由公共建筑到公共空间的重心的转移必然会使得更多的公共空间摆脱与其周边的美学束缚。

没有几个这样的新古典城镇发展成了预想的模式。它们很多都在按一个完全出乎意料的方式发展:一个单调的雷同街区的集合,就像芝加哥那样,但这却很合房地产商人的胃口。其他的则根本没有发展。但是,它们的规划却依然令人感兴趣。它们是图式化的,通俗并且非常简单,美国人就希望城镇是这样的:空间与建筑的安排合理、平等、有政治性,公共与私密的界限分明;用于娱乐、非政治、非公共的功能留给私密空间以达到最佳的被利用。真正的公共的市民的空间是那种中央大广场,在这个无顶的大屋子里,在这个他们扮演相似的给定的角色的舞台上,所有合格的公民聚在一起。我认为这才是区别传统的与当代的公共空间的关键。两个世纪以前,抛开独立战争的影响不谈,人们普遍认为当出现在公共场合内的时候,自己已经是市民了(在我们可以限制的范围内)。我们清楚自己的角色,等级合位置,我们身边建成的环境仅仅是用来确认我们的身份的(像在很多团体那样,自从我们接受洗礼时起我们就是基督教徒了;我们随后在教堂参加的种种仪式只是为了确定我们永久的宗教地位)。但现在,我们却这样认为:我们成为市民是因为特定的经历,包括个人的和公共的。我们对于新的特殊的公共空间的转变是使之成为这样的场所,我们在其中准备--身体的,社会的,甚至职业的--成为市民这个角色。

■ Decline of the Square 广场的没落

我们中仍有许多人认为公共空间就应该体现文明的政治的功能。然而,随着19世纪

Standard
Design

世博园小窥

其他关于此次沈阳世博园的资料可以baidu到一大堆的,我就发一些现场的照片,以及去年暑期世博园仍在施工期间的图片,对比一下。
现状照片拍摄与2006.05.06 去年施工期间照片拍摄于2005.08.22

·世博园总平面,缩小了就没意义了,发原始图片,点击这里下载

·正门,凤凰广场


对比

·主要标志建筑之一,百合塔



对比

·百合塔下一片风车,不知道是不是发电用的……

·一小片营造的水景,恩,最近对湿地比较敏感

这次世博园的交通实在是太方便了,沈阳本身是东北交通枢纽,从沈阳市内到世博园也是相当的方便,这也就导致了人山人海。几乎所有的分类展园都无法找到一个合适的角度去拍摄,不过也确实太多了,没法将每一个小园子都完整的记录下来。

随便发几个

·兰州园

对比

·南宁园

对比

·百合塔下弄了几个假恐龙,好多人趋之若鹜,唉,群众的兴趣实在是让我们迷茫……

·去年的深圳园,北林出品,呵呵

·荷兰园一角

·日本园,法国园……这个,不评论了……

·希腊园,游人甲说,怎么像动物园,还有铁丝网……

·印度园,游人乙说,放个佛像就是印度园呀……

·在沈阳的室外种含笑和椰子树,多大成本呀……

世博园是在原沈阳植物园的基础之上扩建的,我并没有看到宣传上所说的几千种植物(也许是我的问题),我只是看到了满地的郁金香和三色堇。其实我觉得对于沈阳市民来说,最吸引人之处还是原来植物园的部分,这里的游乐项目是大部分市民出游的首选。

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Design

聊聊翻译

假期看了一本《傅雷谈翻译》,结合一下以往和最近的一些翻译感受,随便聊聊。

傅雷是众所周知的翻译大家,国内众多的法国文学的读者应该绝大部分都是读着他的译著成长的。这本《傅雷谈翻译》实际上只是一本傅雷的一些书信、著作序跋的集子,他本人并没有真正写过专门的翻译方面的著作,但从这些集合在一起的零碎的文字中也可以领会其翻译的精妙所在。


傅雷主要从事的是文学作品的翻译,虽然与我所涉及的LA专业的文章的翻译在具体方面无甚交集,但其于翻译的宏观方面的指导却十分有益。
“以效果而论,翻译应当像临画一样,所求的不在形似而在神似。”傅雷应该是国内第一个提出翻译应求神似的,不过这种理论于专业领域的文献翻译却不甚合宜。首先是书的受众不同,除个别情况,大部分的专业文章的读者还都只有业内人士及爱好者,尤其是在LA专业国外绝对强势,国内甚至连LA这个行业都没有一个统一明确的译名的情况下,大部分的翻译还是以形似为好。其次,从国内开始从国外引入LA这一专业并与国内原有的相关内容相结合时开始,有关的文献翻译就已经开始,从那时一直沿用至今有好多习惯的翻译方式,读者们都已接受这种习惯。好多颇有名气的著作也基本上是领导了这一翻译风格,无怪有些外人读之觉得并不十分符合中文的习惯语法。

“任何作品不精读四五遍决不动手,是为译事基本法门。第一要求将原作连同思想,感情,气氛,情调等等化为我有。”这句话无论对于文学作品还是专业文献都非常适用。我刚开始尝试一些翻译之时,有些文章甚至是直接读一句翻译一句,比如翻译那个同声传译的文稿(要求1个多小时出稿,没办法,很多都是读了一段之后直接用中文概括出来了……)。之后进行的一些尝试最多也就是看了一两遍之后开始翻的,确实没有做到至少是领会作者的写作意图。目前手头上还有一篇长文的初译稿,待再次仔细体会原文之意后再译一遍。

“理想的译文仿佛是原作者的中文写作。那么原文的意义与精神,译文的流畅与完整,都可以兼筹并顾,不至于再有以辞害意,或以意害辞的弊病了。”“译文必须为纯粹之中文,无生硬拗口之病。”“译书的标准应当是这样:假使原作者是精通中国语文的,译本就是他使用中文完成的创作。”文学作品方面且不谈,就目前国内LA专业书籍的翻译现状而言(我如此总结是否有些过分……见谅见谅,我只是发表一下个人的见解),水准还是参差不齐。比如说那个著名到不能再著名的《设计结合自然》,我一定要去拜读英文原版,几乎没有人说这本书不好,说这本书有多么重要的意义,但我读了几遍之后仍旧未发现其精妙绝伦之处(至少是未到世人评论之高度),原以为是我理解力的问题,现在我已经开始怀疑这本书的译文了……
简单说一下我读过的几本觉得翻译的很棒的书,《景观设计学》《城市设计》《大众行为与公园设计》《风景园林设计要素》,几本书翻译风格各异,不过有一点是共同的,读起来都不会觉得是译文,感觉就是作者用中文的写作。几本书中对于一些常用概念的译法基本代表了业内的共识(不一定是这几本书首先采用的这种译法)。

暂时先想到这么些,以后有想法再慢慢补充。

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Design

书摘-A Visual Approach to Park Design


书很棒,翻译也很棒~
摘抄一下喜欢的部分,权当读书笔记了

大众行为与公园设计
A Visual Approach to Park Design


1.设计必须为人 Design must be for people

2.人的空间行为是环境设计的有机构成部分,要求环境能积极反映使用者潜在的各种行为意识。

3.本书以社会学、心理学以及人的需要层次等理论为基点,依靠对公园中人的视觉信息的分析,着重探讨人在既定环境中的心理欲望和行为习惯,继而提出一种新的设计程序,这种程序包括设计前的调研和设计后的评价,即信息反馈。

4.环境设计的功能准则与美学准则并非相互排斥,对设计成果的享用者来说,两者同等重要。

5.只有在社会科学向设计者提供更全面的信息之后,他的专业方才能够对社会与人的需要作出更多的反映。

6.最早的牛车车轮或许是方的,不难想象驱车行进时的颠簸。但是,乘方轮车赶路却总比那些站在一旁不愿担风险者更早到达目的地。

7.设计者是预见者

8.利用随时观察的方法对周围的一切进行发掘,最终目的在于收集人们在特定情况下的行为活动,然后将这些一点一滴拼缀成一部印刻在头脑中的百科全书

9.人们出于天性总喜欢在居民区的住宅前面聚会,门前的场地历来是传统的社交中心(炫耀的洗车者)。

10.在公园吸引人的诸多因素中,压倒一切的王牌正是“其他的人”

11.注意并重视人群的集结点。人看人,其乐无穷!

12.看热闹的人总是靠在或坐在身边方便的设施上。

13.避免在公园唯一的入口通道处过多地布置那些频繁使用的设施。
妥善组织整个活动区,从而促进一个场地到另一个场地的人与人之间的相互观看。
设计游憩处的交界地段时,要使人们对某些活动进行观察的同时,置身与场外。

14.游戏场设计:

玩耍是一种寻求刺激的行为,儿童们是为了得到刺激而玩耍
[能使孩子们在使用中找出最多的玩耍方式
|能使孩子们在使用中最大程度地进行合作(有了对手,才玩得更爽)
[最好不要抑制孩子们的玩耍行为

[传统作法:设置警告系统,阻止孩子们不去做他们没有十分把握的游戏
[而在连接体系中,则是提供若干条脱离险境的路线,让孩子们最佳地选用

儿童的玩耍时间固定且短暂,将一组组的游乐设施沿人行道设置,并将其与孩子们常常进出的大门联系起来,而不是设置在远离街区的某个大公园的角落里。

15.只有当设计对人们所追求的目标提供支持时,只有当设计者将人们习以为常的行为方式视为神圣的设计宗旨时,人们才会按照设计所鼓励的方式去行动。

16.鲁特里奇(Rutledge)三条法则:
如果你不愿意把某件东西让人们以一种可以预见得到的方式加以使用,那么,一开始就别将它放在那里。
如果你想让人们按照某一特定目的去使用某些东西,那么,就应该尽可能地将你的目的表达清楚。
在没有提供新的交换物之前,人们决不会抛掉旧的东西。

17.时刻保持清醒,不断提醒问自己“So what?”

18.引自《Personal Space:The Behavioral Basis》Robert Morgen
亲昵距离:6-15英寸(0.15-0.375m)
私交距离:1.5-4英尺(0.45-1.2m)
社交距离:4-12英尺(1.2-3.6m)
公共距离:12-25英尺(3.6-7.5m)

19.住宅适宜于人的居住与否,在很大程度上取决于居住者是否能够明显地辨认出哪些地段属他所有(地域性理论)

20.由若干明确空间组成的整体布局,会比那些无区别标志和没有经过规划的开敞地更加受人们喜爱。

21.环境支持:对一个场所所具有的适应人们行为活动的环境进行分析–>怎样细致地处理这个场所地各个局部,以及怎样为你想象中的特定行为提供最佳服务。
心理支持:分析弄清主要角色与陪衬者之间的关系–>怎样合理地设置和排除障碍,以及怎样对一个地方的各个使用场所进行更好的组织。
交通方便:了解使用者来自何处–>在什么地方安排活动场所更为恰当。
通过观察所得到的行为洞察力,对一个地方的布局和细节处理有着多么举足轻重的影响和作用,而这些也正是设计所需要解决的核心问题。

22.正确地选词造句之所以重要,是因为它建立了一种语言表达方式,一种使那些能够从中得益的人比较容易接受的语言。

23.评价方法:它将调查的重点放在对设计者所表达的意图上。这种方法有助于提高设计者以及涉及工作参加者的士气。因为它着重探讨那些设计者所渴望了解的东西。故这样的信息反馈就将给设计程序的改进带来令人鼓舞的前景。

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Design

The Unplanned Growth of Cities


The pioneering landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who helped design Central Park in New York City, described his vision of the role of parks in urban development in a speech given in Boston, Massachusetts, on February 15, 1870. He understood that the physical and mental well-being of a city’s population translated directly into its economic health. Olmsted also saw parks as emblems of social democracy where all classes of city dwellers could mingle in a rejuvenating environment. Olmsted eventually became discouraged by the lack of public support for his projects and spent his later efforts designing private parks for wealthy clients.

主持建造了纽约中央公园的卓越的景观设计师奥姆斯特德,1870年2月15日在波士顿进行的一次演讲中,阐述了他对公园在城市发展中所扮演的角色的看法。他认为,一个城市所有居民物质和精神上的状态与这个城市的经济发展息息相关。而公园做为社会民主的象征之一是一个可以令所有阶层的市民都可以进入并享用的一个休闲场所。但最终奥姆斯特德还是对公众没能对他的项目给予足够的支持和关注表示失望,并导致他此后一直接受富人的委托来设计私家花园。


From Olmsted’s “The Unplanned Growth of Cities”
无序的城市

What accommodations for recreation can we provide which shall be so agreeable and so accessible to the great body of citizens, and which, while giving decided gratification, shall also cause those who resort to them for pleasure to subject themselves, for the time being, to conditions strongly counteractive to the special enervating conditions of the town? In the study of this question, all forms of recreation may, in the first place, be conveniently arranged under two general heads.… Games chiefly of mental skill, as chess, or athletic sports, as baseball, are examples of means of recreation of the first class, which may be termed exertive recreation; music and the fine arts generally of the second or receptive division.

我们能够提供什么样令大多数的市民都接受和理解的休闲的场所,既满足功能要求,又可以随着时间的推移,让那些特意前来的市民获得与沉闷的城市环境完全相反的感受?在这个问题的讨论上,所有的休闲的形式都将首先被划分为这样两个类型。例如象棋这样主要靠头脑的游戏还有棒球这样的体育运动,都属于第一种休闲形式,或者我们可以称之为主动休闲。而象音乐和美术则是第二类,被动的休闲。

There is an instinctive inclination to this social, neighborly, unexertive form of recreation among all of us. In one way or another it is sure to be constantly operating upon those millions on millions of men and women who are to pass their lives within a few miles of where we now stand. To what extent it shall operate so as to develop health and virtue will, on many occasions, be simply a question of opportunity and inducement. And this question is one for the determination of which for a thousand years we here today are largely responsible.

我们都对于这种社交的,邻里的,轻松的休闲方式有一种本能的喜好。这样的或其他的原因可以使我们确信,由于众多的人们都生活在离我们此时所站之处几英里范围之内,这种行为将会一直持续下去。而它将持续到什么样的程度,以至于可以促进人们的身心健康,在很多因素下将仅仅是个简单的归结于机遇与动机的问题。我们在此所负担的这个问题也正是一千年来人们追求的目标。

For this purpose neither of the forms of ground we have heretofore considered are at all suitable. We want a ground to which people may easily go after their day’s work is done, and where they may stroll for an hour, seeing, hearing, and feeling nothing of the bustle and jar of the streets—where they shall, in effect, find the city put far away from them. We want the greatest possible contrast with the streets and the shops and the rooms of the town which will be consistent with convenience and the preservation of good order and neatness. We want, especially, the greatest possible contrast with the restraining and confining conditions of the town, those conditions which compel us to walk circumspectly, watchfully, jealously, which compel us to look closely upon others without sympathy. Practically, what we most want is a simple, broad, open space of clean greensward, with sufficient play of surface and a sufficient number of trees about it to supply a variety of light and shade. This we want as a central feature. We want depth of wood enough about it not only for comfort in hot weather but to completely shut out the city from our landscapes.

由此看来,迄今为止我们所考虑过的所有土地形式都不是合宜的。我们需要的是这样一个场所,人们在结束了一天的劳作之后可以轻松到达,他们可在其中悠闲漫步,感受不到街道的喧嚣和拥挤,实际上就是令他们获得远离城市的感受。当人们在一个拘束的城市空间中,被迫谨慎警惕的行走,漠然的面对其他路人,我们将对与其形成鲜明对比的和谐舒适的环境怀有更强的渴望,在那里人们可以无拘无束的逛街、购物或仅仅待在家中。实际上,我们所需要的仅仅是一块宽阔的开放的空间,那里有干净的绿草地,足够游戏的场地以及足够的能够提供各种光影的林地。这是我们需要的核心的特征。我们需要足够密的树林,不仅仅是为了夏日的荫凉,更主要的是要将自然与城市完全隔离。

The word “park,” in town nomenclature, should, I think, be reserved for grounds of the character and purpose thus described.

我认为,在城市的术语中,“公园”这个词应该被确定为具有上述特征和用途的场所。

Not only as being the most valuable of all possible forms of public places but regarded simply as a large space which will seriously interrupt crosstown communication wherever it occurs, the question of the site and bounds of the park requires to be determined with much more deliberation and art than is often secured for any problem of distant and extended municipal interests. The park should, as far as possible, complement the town.

不仅仅是作为公共用地中最有价值的形式,而且当公园不恰当存在时还容易被公众简单的理解为巨大的严重干扰城市内部交流的地块,这就使得缜密及艺术性的考虑公园的位置和范围显得更加重要,而不是只满足于以往的将其作为城市边缘及或扩展的定位。公园,应该在最大的可能性上弥补城市的不足。

Openness is the one thing you cannot get in buildings. Picturesqueness you can get. Let your buildings be as picturesque as your artists can make them. This is the beauty of a town. Consequently, the beauty of the park should be the other. It should be the beauty of the fields, the meadow, the prairie, of the green pastures, and the still waters. What we want to gain is tranquility and rest to the mind. Mountains suggest effort. But besides this objection there are others of what I may indicate as the housekeeping class. It is impossible to give the public range over a large extent of ground of a highly picturesque character, unless under very exceptional circumstances, and sufficiently guard against the occurrence of opportunities and temptations to shabbiness, disorder, indecorum, and indecency that will be subversive of every good purpose the park should be designed to fulfill.

你无法从建筑物上获得

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Design

Harvard Design School Project for Reclamation Excellence

被人抓了壮丁…………
要求一个多小时之内翻译出了这个东东………
自己都没谱………………
说是给即将召开的“2005中外著名风景园林专家学术报告会”使用的同声传译文稿,是翻译大师的文章,惶恐ing…


Case Study B:
Harvard Design School Project for Reclamation Excellence (P-REX)
Location: International

哈佛设计学院的土地改良计划(Project for Reclamation Excellence (P-REX))
范围:全球性


The P-REX promotes new methods for reclaiming altered landscape of natural resource extraction in the environment through applied research, education and communications. The P-REX partners with like-minded groups to implement its multidisciplinary research program. Partner institutions include, municipalities, state and federal agencies, universities, foundations, and corporations involved in design, engineering and environmental services, mining, property development, and manufacturing. With our partners we leverage our combined expertise and resources to achieve both shared and respective objectives.

P-REX旨在通过应用研究、教育及交流为改良自然环境中因资源开采而破坏了的景观提供了新的方法。P-REX通过联合各个共同兴趣小组来实现它的多学科综合研究项目。合作机构包括:联邦、州和区各级政府部门,各大学与基金会,以及涉及设计、工程、环境维护、矿业、房地产、制造业等的各个企业。我们与合作伙伴一起协调我们整合的技术与资源来达到我们共同的和各自的目的。

Another source of motivation for this Project is the recognition that domestic and international natural resource extraction and development will increase over the next few decades as industrial production globalizes. Few places outside of North America have fully developed standards and programs for reclaiming mined lands. The following are examples of the types of programs that are housed within P-REX:

这个项目的另一个动机就是这样一个共识,国内与国际的资源开发与利用将在几十年之内与工业生产一样实现全球化。在北美之外的地区很少建立有完整的关于回收改良开采过的土地的标准和项目。下面就是一些基于P-REX的项目的例子:

1. ‘Best Design Practices’ in national/international reclamation design.
P-REX assembles the parties from a host of countries, provinces, states, agencies, regulators, and companies to participate in the development of criteria and standards for the review and evaluation of projects that are submitted from around the world. The criteria and standards are used to guide evaluation panels or “juries” to evaluate projects that had been submitted for “design” awards.


1.国家或国际的改良项目中的最优设计方法
P-REX聚集了许多的国家、州省各级政府、管理者和公司到一起参与到规格和标准的完善,用这些更加完善的标准来评估从世界各地递交上来的计划项目。这些标准原来是用于指导评估小组或委员会来对参与设计评选的项目的评估。

2.International Perspective on Innovative Reclamation Techniques for Metal Mines
Innovative post-mine land use case studies, technologies, techniques, and other aspects of reclaiming metal mines are examined from around the globe. Potential panelists include: environmental organizations from around the globe, government entities which are currently addressing or anticipated to be looking at mining development activities from around the world, and various small and large mining companies and industry associations. Other potential topics include: Public and Private Land Use Issues; Landscape Ecology and Evolutionary Strategies to Reclamation Success; Water Resource Issues.


2.国际上关于金属矿藏的创新改良技术的看法
在开采后用地的使用情况的研究,技术手段以及改良金属矿藏用地的其他方面使用创新的方法的话,都应在全球范围内进行检验。参与讨论的小组应该包括:来自全球各地的环境组织,那些正在或即将关注矿藏开发的政府部门,以及各种大大小小的矿业公司和工业协会。其他的可能讨论的话题还包括:公共和个人的土地使用问题;景观生态及确保改良成功的发展策略;水资源问题。

Whether through reprogramming landscape surface, deploying technologies and ecologies for site regeneration, or planning alteration prior to groundbreaking, landscape architects need to become more involved in this growing body of work, and the current resource structure within the Department is primed to lead this global discussion. Reclamation work continues to be fruitful and is evolving. Collaborative working relationships are developing on two fronts, both of which will create opportunities for the Department in the near future.

无论是通过对地表的重组,或通过技术和生态手段进行场地重建,还是在破坏场地前进行改造,景观设计师们都需要更加积极的参与到这个发展的工作中来,并且当前风景园林系的资源政策正是要引领这个全球化的讨论。改良工作不断的获得成果并且其自身也在不断完善。协同工作的关系也在两个方面得到发展,并都将在不远的将来为政府带来无限良机。

One front involves collaboration with faculty at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and their Project on American Indian Economic Development. We are working together to identify sites within American Indian Reservations for simulated landscape reclamation work. The high percentage of illiteracy amongst Native American tribes often makes it extremely difficult for tribal members to reach consensus on land use development and natural resource extraction issues, leaving them vulnerable to outside industrial interests. We believe the work will have broad foundational support, deep educational and practical benefits, and could form a long-term interdisciplinary project for our respective schools.

一个方面包括与哈佛大学的肯尼迪政体学院(Kennedy School of Government)的合作,他们的项目是拉动美国印第安地区经济的发展。我们协同进行对印第安保留地地区资源的类似的改良工作的识别。由于土著部落中的过高的文盲率,使得他们在关于土地的利用及资源的开采方面很难达成共识,使得他们很容易在外界的工业入侵中蒙受损失。我们相信我们的工作能够提供广阔的基础支持,显著的教育与实践效益,并且可以为我们各自的学校建立起长期的多学科综合的项目。

The second front of the reclamation work is forming within the mining industry itself, which perpetually rethinks its landscape reclamation priorities, (and will have enough reclamation work to cover over 100 thousand square miles and last until the year 2240). Within the next year or two I expect real operating mines to collaborate with a GSD entity to advance landscape reclamation beyond what it is today-experimenting with open-ended design, landscape reprogramming and ecological transformation at scales rarely considered in current practice, but which could be applied at all scales of Landscape Architecture.

另一个方面,使得矿业企业能够永久的重新考虑土地改良的重要性(这将带来足够多的改良工作,包括10万平方公里以上的面积并将持续到2240年)。我期望在一年或两年之内就出现实际的与GSD合作的土地改良项目,而不是现阶段仍然停留在实验阶段的开放性设计。当今的尝试几乎没有
考虑过各种尺度上的景观重组和生态转换,但实际上则是应该在景观设计的所有尺度上得以实施。

Standard
Design

What is Landscape Architecture

05.04.08-04.18

翻译前面发表过的摘自Encarta的关于LA的文章
(部分译名参考《西方造园变迁史》针之谷钟吉著,邹洪灿译。括号内部分为译注。)

04.18 ,这个大头文章终于弄完了……收获不小。准备啃下一个骨头~


What is Landscape Architecture

quote from Microsoft software Encarta Reference Library
translated by buZz


■ Introduction
概况


Landscape Architecture, the science and art of modifying land areas by organizing natural, cultivated, or constructed elements according to a comprehensive, aesthetic plan. These elements include topographical features such as hills, valleys, rivers, and ponds; growing things such as trees, shrubbery, grass, and flowers; and constructions such as buildings, terraces, roads, bridges, fountains, and statuary. No unalterable rules exist in landscape architecture because each plot of ground offers unique problems caused by variation in contour, climate, and surrounding areas.

景观设计,既是科学,也是艺术,它对大地造型,在周密并符合美学原则的计划下合理的组织自然的,耕种的或建筑的各类元素。这些元素包括:山丘、河流等地形地貌,乔灌花草等生长的植物,以及房屋、路桥、雕塑等建造物。在景观设计中不存在教条的规矩,由于地形,气候以及周边环境的差异,所以每一块场地都有着其唯一的独特的解决方案。

Landscape architecture was formerly called landscape gardening and was limited to the creation of gardens around private dwellings. Today landscape architecture covers a much wider area of concerns, ranging from the setting out of small gardens to the ordering of parks, malls, and highways. It includes landscape gardening, which is now understood as the work done by commercial gardeners, who install and care for flowers and greenery according to the design of landscape architects. The landscape architect, who usually holds an academic degree in this field, has the same professional standing as an architect or engineer and receives a fee directly from the client. The landscape gardener may be a commercial contractor or an amateur, who landscapes the grounds of a private home. Most large-scale gardens are planned by landscape architects, who provide for grading and drainage as well as for decorative design. Small gardens usually do not require the services of a landscape architect.

景观设计在以前被称为Landscape Gardening,并且被局限在了对私人住宅庭院的建造。但是当前景观设计已经覆盖了相当广的领域,包括从一个小花园的建造到对公园、街区、高速路周边的治理。Landscape Gardening目前已经属于景观设计的范畴之内,不过它的含义已经改变为在景观设计师的设计的基础之上,由职业的园艺师完成的对花卉草木的种植与养护。景观设计师,一般会拥有专业的学位,与建筑师和工程师具有同样的职业身份,并且直接从客户手中获得报酬。园艺师则可能是一个将私人住宅景观化的职业承包商或是园艺爱好者。几乎所有的大尺度的园林都由景观设计师来进行规划,他们能在做好地形与排水的同时还能兼顾美化装饰。小的花园一般不需要景观设计师的参与。

■ PRINCIPLES
原则


Whatever the scale of the project, the landscape architect first studies the site. Working alone or with a town planner, traffic engineer, or building architect, as the project requires, the landscape architect considers the proposed use for the site. Other considerations are the layout of the terrain, climate and soil conditions, and costs. Once this information is known, the landscape architect proceeds to actual design.

无论项目的尺度如何,景观设计师首先都要对场地进行调查。按照项目的需要,景观设计师或者独立工作,或者与城镇规划师,道路工程师,建筑师等共同斟酌场地的预期用途。地形的规划,气候,土壤条件以及预算也都是需要考虑的内容。当这些内容都清楚了之后,景观设计师将着手进行实际的设计。

An overall plan is established, which might be a formal garden based on a symmetrical arrangement of geometric beds or an informal arrangement of planting to make as much use as possible of the natural characteristics of the site. A plan might also be for a Japanese garden emphasizing asymmetrical placement of rocks and sand, for a desert garden, or for a simplified massing of naturalistic shrubbery.

首先建立一个总体的方案,其形式可能是一个由几何构型对称布局的古典的园林,也可能是一个试图通过种植来尽可能的利用场地自然条件的不规则布局。这个方案也可能倾向于一个强调不规则置石的日本园林,或者一个岩石园,或者就是一个纯粹的自然灌木林。

The landscape architect’s plan takes into account proportion and scale. A small walled garden, for example, is scaled to the close-range view of its occupant; a large park, however, benefits from spacious vistas and massive groupings of trees. The plan also takes advantage of natural land formations, such as hills or pools, or alters them. The plan may provide for subdivisions of space, whether these are a series of enclosures containing different colors or other variations or are loosely defined areas that flow into one another.

景观设计师的方案非常重视比例与尺度。比如说,一个围墙之内的小庭院的尺度要满足其使用者的近距离的视线的要求;得益于其空间上的丰富多变以及大量群植的树木而形成的景观,大公园也能获得宜人的尺度。方案中自然的地形的因素也十分重要,比如山地或者水面,要充分利用或者改造它们。同时方案也不能忽略细部,比如色彩丰富的篱笆、区域之间的过渡等。

The landscape architect also considers contrasts in shady masses and open, sunny spaces, especially in relation to the climate. Contrasts in the size, color, and texture of plant material are also important. Planting may be designed according to season so that different parts of a garden bloom at different times. A successful plan also requires knowledge of plant characteristics, needs, and limitations. Other elements in a landscape architect’s plan may be fountains, streams, and pools; sculpture and benches; walls, walks, and terraces; and small structures such as gazebos, kiosks, and trellises.

景观设计师还要考虑封闭多荫与开敞明亮的空间之间的对比,尤其是与气候有关的情况。植物的大小,颜色,纹理上的对比也同样重要。种植一般是围绕季相进行设计,来达到园景的四时不同。一个成功的设计还要求掌握植物的生理特性、需求和种植的限制。在一个景观设计师的方案中还有一些其他的元素,比如喷泉、小溪、水池;比如雕塑小品和座椅;比如围墙、步道、坡地;还有亭台阁这样的小型构筑物。

■ Ancient World
古代世界


As early as the 3rd millennium bc, the Egyptians planted gardens within the walled enclosures surrounding their homes. In time these gardens came to be formally laid out around a rectangular fish pond flanked by orderly rows of fruit trees and
ornamental plants, as seen in tomb paintings.


早在公元前3000年,埃及人就在他们的住宅周围建造了有围墙的花园。随着时间的推移,这些花园逐渐形成了一种标准的形式:一个矩形的鱼池,两侧围有行植的果树和观赏植物,就像在墓穴中看到的绘画一样。

In Mesopotamia, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the World. They included full-size trees planted on earth-covered terraces raised on stone vaults in a corner of the palace complex of Nebuchadnezzar II. In the highlands to the north, the Assyrians and Persians developed great tree-filled parks for hunting on horseback. They also planned rectangular walled formal gardens, irrigated by pools and canals and shaded by trees, usually set in vast barren plains. These gardens symbolized paradise and inspired Persian carpet designs.

在美索不达米亚,则有世界七大奇迹之一的巴比伦空中花园。在尼布甲尼撒二世(Nebuchadnezzar II,古巴比伦国王)的宫殿之内,人们将全高的树木种植在覆土的由石拱支撑的平台上。在北方的高地上,亚述人和波斯人则发展了用于狩猎的密林园。他们同样也建造规则的有围墙的传统庭院,里面由水池和沟渠灌溉,树荫遮阳,这样的庭院一般都建造在广阔的贫瘠的平原上。这些庭院象征着人们心中向往的天堂的景象,同时也为波斯地毯的设计提供了大量的灵感。

In ancient Greece, sacred groves were preserved as the habitats of divinities. Greek houses included a walled court or garden usually surrounded by a colonnade. In 5th-century bc Athens public gardens and colonnaded walks attached to the Academy (“school”) and the Lyceum (“gymnasium”) were much frequented by philosophers and their disciples.

在古希腊,人们将庄严的小树林奉为神的住所。希腊的住宅包括一个一般由柱廊围合的有围墙的庭院或花园。公元前5世纪的雅典,依附于学院与讲堂(Academy and Lyceum)的公共花园与柱廊步道更多的是被哲学家与他们的弟子们光顾。

Roman houses, similar to Greek houses, included a colonnaded garden, as depicted in wall paintings at Pompeii and as described by Pliny the Elder. Villas on the hilly terrain near Rome were designed with terraced gardens. Rich Romans, such as Lucullus, Maecenas, and Sallust, laid out lavish pleasure grounds including porticoes, banqueting halls, and sculpture. The vast grounds of the Emperor Hadrian’s villa near Tivoli (2nd century ad) were magnificently landscaped. The Roman populace enjoyed gardens attached to the public baths.

罗马的住宅,与希腊的一样,包括一个柱廊围合的花园,就像在庞贝发现的壁画以及老普林尼(Pliny the Elder,罗马学者)描绘的那样。罗马附近山丘地带的别墅被设计成了台地园。罗马的富豪,比如卢库勒斯(Lucullus,古罗马将军兼执政官, 以巨富和举办豪华大宴著名)、米西奈斯(Maecenas,著名的文学艺术资助者)、撒拉斯特(Sallust,罗马历史学家)等,投资建设了大量奢华的场所包括柱廊、宴会厅以及雕塑。广阔的哈德良行宫(Emperor Hadrian’s villa)拥有宏伟壮丽的景观。罗马的公众则很喜欢公共浴室附带的庭院花园。

■ NON-WESTERN WORLD
非西方世界


The Muslims, living where the climate is generally hot and dry, were inspired by the desert oasis and the ancient Persian paradise garden centered on water. Muslim gardens were usually one or more enclosed courts surrounded by cool arcades and planted with trees and shrubs. They were enlivened with colored tilework, fountains and pools, and the interplay of light and shade. Before the 15th century, the Moors in Spain built such gardens at Córdoba, Toledo, and especially at the Alhambra in Granada. Similar gardens, in which flowers, fruit trees, water, and shade were arranged in a unified composition, were built by the Mughals in 17th- and 18th-century India. The most notable examples are the Taj Mahal gardens in Agra and the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore.

居住在炎热干旱地区的穆斯林人民,从沙漠绿洲以及古波斯人的以水为中心的天堂花园获得了灵感。穆斯林的庭院一般是一面或多面封闭的,四周是凉爽的拱廊,多种植乔灌木。绚丽的砖瓦,水池和喷泉,以及变幻莫测的光影使穆斯林的庭院充满了生气。15世纪之前,摩尔人在西班牙建造了大量穆斯林风格的园林,比如科尔多瓦(Córdoba)、托莱多(Toledo),其中最著名的当属格拉纳达(Granada)的阿尔罕布拉宫(Alhambra)。同样的植物,同样的水池,同样的光影变换,莫卧尔帝国在在17-18世纪的印度以同样的手法建造了同样的园林。其中最负盛名的是位于阿格拉的泰姬陵(Taj Mahal gardens)以及位于拉合尔的夏利马庭院(Shalimar Gardens)。

In China, palaces, temples, and houses were built around a series of courtyards, which might include trees and plants often in pots that could be changed with the seasons, and pools. The Imperial City in Beijing contained elaborate pleasure gardens with trees, artificial lakes and hillocks, bridges, and pavilions.

在中国,无论宫殿、寺庙或者住宅都会有庭院围绕,庭院中一般都会有树木植物和池塘,植物一般是栽种在盆中,这样可以随着季节的变化而改变位置或者种类。北京的皇城中拥有众多赏心悦目的花园,花园中有树木,人工湖和假山,桥、亭等。

Japan has a long tradition of gardens inspired by Chinese and Korean models. In former times, palaces, temples, teahouses, and private houses all had garden settings that were closely integrated with the buildings. Kyōto was especially famous for its gardens. The gardens included pools and waterfalls; rocks, stone, and sand; and evergreens. They might also contain stone lanterns and sculptures and wooden bridges, gates, and pavilions. Every element of a garden was carefully planned, sometimes by Zen monks and painters, to create an effect of restraint, harmony, and peace, which is exemplified by the extant Katsura Detached Palace gardens in Kyōto. Such traditions continue to some extent in modern Japan and have influenced Western landscape architects.

日本的园林有着悠久的历史,当然基本上都是从中国和朝鲜的园林中获得了的灵感。在古代,日本的宫殿,寺庙,茶室以及私人的住宅都拥有与建筑紧密结合的庭院。京都以其优秀的园林而著称。这些园林有湖,有瀑布,有岩石,有沙地,还种植着很多常绿树。石灯笼,石雕,木桥,木门,亭也是其中不可缺少的。禅宗僧侣和画家一般会参与到园林的设计中来,其中每一个元素都被精心放置以达到一种谨慎、和谐、安宁的气氛,现存的最好例子就是位于京都(Kyōto)的桂离宫(Katsura Detached Palace)。某些传统仍然被当今日本的园林所借鉴,并影响着西方的景观设计师们。

■ MEDIEVAL, RENAISSANCE, AND BAROQUE PERIODS
中世纪,文艺复兴,巴洛克时期


In medieval Europe, ravaged by invasions and incessant wars, gardens were generally small and enclosed for protection within the fortified walls of monasteries and castles. At the 9th-century Swiss abbey of St. Gall the large garden was divided into four areas, for herbs, vegetables, fruits, and flowers. The gardens of most monasteries were surrounded by cloistered walks and had a well or fountain at the center, possibly inspired by Persian gardens, which was intended to
enhance meditation. Castles might have a kitchen or herb garden, a private ornamental garden for the lord and lady, and a larger grassy area for the pleasure of the court.


中世纪的欧洲,由于连绵不断的战火,花园都建造的很小,而且都造在有着坚实围墙的修道院和城堡中求得保护。公元9世纪,瑞士的圣高尔修道院(abbey of St. Gall)的大花园被分成了四个部分,分别用来种植药草、蔬菜、水果和花卉。大多数的修道院庭院都有围廊式步道环绕,在中心有一口井或者一眼泉,也许为的是营造一种利于冥想的环境吧,这种做法很有可能是从波斯园林那里获得的灵感。在城堡中一般会有一个厨房和药草园,一个主要供城堡及其家室使用的以观赏植物为主的花园,以及使整个庭院生机勃勃的大片绿地。

During the Renaissance in Italy when conditions became more stable, castles gave way to palaces and villas with extensive grounds landscaped in the Roman tradition. The architect of the house usually designed its setting as well, thus ensuring a harmonious relationship between the two. The symmetrical, classically inspired plan of the house was repeated in the grounds. Laid out along a central axis, avenues, walks, and steps led from terrace to terrace, which, wherever possible, afforded fine views of the countryside. Borders of tall, dark cypresses and clipped yew hedges, geometric flower beds, stone balustrades, fountains, and sculptures conformed strictly to the overall plan. Examples from the 15th century include the gardens of the Medici, Palmieri, and La Pietra villas in or near Florence. Among increasingly formal and elaborate villa complexes in the 16th century are the Villa Lante in Bagnaia and the Villa Farnese in Caprarola, both designed by Giacomo da Vignola. Others are the Villa Madama and the Villa Medici in Rome and the Villa d’Este in Tivoli.

文艺复兴时期的意大利,环境相对稳定,宫殿和庄园取代了城堡,它们有着更广阔的场地和罗马传统式的风景。房子的建筑师一般也要考虑庭院的设计,因此他们还要确保建筑与园林两者之间和谐的关系。对称的,有着古典主义灵感的建筑布局就这样被不断的重复下去。中央布置一条轴线,周围是林荫路,步道,台地之间的台阶,这些在可能的情况下都要力求展现优美的田园风光。深绿色的柏树屏障,修建过的紫杉篱,几何形花坛,石栏杆,喷泉以及雕塑都严格得按照总体规划来安排。例如15世纪佛罗伦萨附近的美第奇庄园(Medici),Palmieri别墅,La Pietra别墅。到了16世纪,在不断增多的传统的精美的别墅中,复杂成了主调,比较著名的有维格诺拉(Giacomo da Vignola)设计的位于巴尼亚(Bagnaia)的兰特别墅(Villa Lante)和位于卡普拉罗拉(Caprarola)的法尔纳斯别墅(Villa Farnese)。其他的还有罗马的Villa Madama,美第奇别墅(Villa Medici)以及蒂沃利(Tivoli)的埃斯特别墅(Villa d’Este)。

Italian gardens of the 17th century became even more complex in the dramatic baroque style. They were distinguished by lavish use of serpentine lines, groups of sculptured allegorical figures in violent movement, and a multiplicity of spouting fountains and waterfalls. Examples are the Villa Aldobrandini in Frascati, Villa Garzoni in Collodi, Villa Giovio in Como, and the gardens on the Isola Bella in Lake Maggiore.

17世纪意大利的花园变得越来越复杂化了,呈现出一种戏剧化的巴洛克风格。他们的特征是,大量的使用蜿蜒的曲线,具有强烈动感的寓言雕塑,各式各样的喷泉和跌水。比如弗拉斯卡蒂(Frascati)的阿尔多布兰迪尼别墅(Villa Aldobrandini),Villa Garzoni in Collodi,科莫(Como)的乔维奥别墅(Villa Giovio),还有马乔列湖(Lake Maggiore)的伊索拉贝拉别墅(Isola Bella)的花园。

■ ROMANTIC PERIOD
浪漫主义时期


In the late 18th century the rise of romanticism, with its emphasis on untamed nature, the picturesque, the past, and the exotic, led to important changes in landscape architecture as well as in other arts. The shift began in England. In place of the patterned formality of Le N?tre’s designs, architects such as Capability Brown preferred a new, softer romantic style that imitated rather than disciplined nature. At such great houses as Blenheim Palace and Chatsworth, Brown replaced the parterres of symmetrically arranged flower beds and straight walks with sweeping lawns, sloping hills with curving paths, and rivers and ponds punctuated by informally planted groups of trees and shrubbery, to achieve the effect of a wilderness. The English landscape architect Humphry Repton modified the style, believing that a house was best set off by formal flower beds that merged by subtle degrees into a naturalistic background. These so-called English gardens often incorporated “follies,” fake medieval ruins and Roman temples, inspired by the 17th-century paintings of the Roman countryside by Claude Lorrain and his followers. Chinese pavilions and other exotica were inspired by engravings of Chinese gardens in travel books by such travelers as the architect Sir William Chambers.

18世纪末,浪漫主义之风盛行,它推崇未被改造的自然,如画的风景,强调历史和异国风情,使不光在景观设计方面,在其他艺术领域也都产生重大的变革。改变首先从英国开始。在勒诺特设计的传统的图案式的园林中,像能人布朗(Capability Brown)这样的建筑师更倾向于一种新的,柔性的浪漫主义风格。在布伦海姆宫(Blenheim Palace)和查兹沃斯(Chatsworth)这样大规模的园林中,布朗拆毁了几何式的花坛和笔直的步道,取而代之的是开阔的草坪,连绵的小丘上曲折的山路,点缀着自然种植的树木的溪流和池塘,以这种方式来到达一种野趣。英国造园家雷普顿(Humphry Repton)改变了这个状况,他认为最佳的布局应该是一座建筑周围有规则的花坛,然后逐渐的过渡到周边自然的环境中去。这些被称为英国式园林的也会发生一些荒唐事,由于受到17世纪著名的风景画家洛兰(Claude Lorrain)及其追随者的影响,出现了一些仿造的中世纪废墟和罗马的古庙。出现在像钱伯斯爵士(Sir William Chambers)这样的旅行家的游记中的中国园林的版画使得中国式的亭和其他异国风景也出现在英国园林之中。

The English romantic style spread to the rest of Europe by way of France, where a notable example of the style was created at Ermenonville. As late as the reign of Napoleon the English romantic style was employed by the engineer Jean Charles Adolphe Alphandin laying out the great parks of Paris, which exerted an immediate international influence. In Germany and Austria, the romantic style was enthusiastically endorsed by Prince Hermann von Puckler-Muskau, who created a romantic park on his estate near Berlin and published the influential Hints on Landscape Gardening (1835).

英国的浪漫主义风格通过法国影响到了欧洲的其他各国,其中在法国一个比较著名的例子是在阿尔门维尔烈(Ermenonville)的园林。到了拿破仑统治的时期,浪漫主义风格在工程师Jean Charles Adolphe Alphandin的手中产生了巴黎的许多大型园林,并立即造成了国际性的影响。在德国和奥地利,这种浪漫主义风格被庇乌克勒·穆斯考(Hermann von Puckler-Muskau)极力推崇,他在他柏林附近的地产上建造了极富浪漫色彩的穆斯考林苑,并且还在1835年出版了颇具影响力的《造园指南》(《Hints on Landscape Gardening》)一书。

The romantic style was introduced in North America by Thomas Jef
ferson at Monticello, his Virginia estate. The most important example of this style is Central Park, New York City, designed in 1857 by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. It was the first major public example of landscape architecture in the U.S. and was so successful both as a municipal enterprise and as a work of art that by 1870 it had influenced the creation of public parks, many of them designed by Olmsted and Vaux, all over the nation. The profession of landscape architecture, as distinct from architecture and horticulture, was established largely through the success of Olmsted and Vaux, who also worked at the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. At about the same time, the Boston landscape architect Charles Eliot did much to further interest in metropolitan landscape parks as recreational areas that could relieve city congestion.


托马斯?杰佛逊(Thomas Jefferson)通过他在弗吉尼亚的地产中的造园将浪漫主义风格引入北美。最著名的例子便是1857年由奥姆斯特德(Frederick Law Olmsted)和沃克斯(Calvert Vaux)联手设计的纽约中央公园。这是在美国的第一个主要的公共的景观设计的例子,中央公园的成功在于它是市政建设与艺术成果的完美结合。1870年城市公园概念的形成也于中央公园有关,奥姆斯特德和沃克斯还设计了遍布全美的大部分城市公园。为了与建筑学与园艺学区别开,景观设计学科的设立也和奥姆斯特德和沃克斯的成功有着很大的联系,此二人还参与了1893年在芝加哥举行的哥伦比亚世界博览会。与此同时,波士顿的景观设计师查尔斯?埃利奥特(Charles Eliot did)提出了更加前瞻的大都市公园系统的设想,他将城市公园做为一种休闲的地域来减轻城市臃肿的负担。

■ 20TH CENTURY
20世纪


Domestic architecture in the first half of the 20th century attempted to achieve a closer integration of the house with its surroundings, as seen in the works of Sven Markelius in Sweden, Alvar Aalto in Finland, and Frank Lloyd Wright in the U.S. In areas with mild climates, such as California, a garden might be continued within the house. The worldwide economic depression between the two world wars, however, forced a shift from domestic settings to large-scale public works, in which landscape architects and planners worked together on entire communities, regional areas, and vast state and national projects. The rising costs of labor and materials after World War II made careful planning imperative, especially in Europe and Asia, where entire cities had to be rebuilt within tightly restricted areas. In England, for example, the wholesale creation of new towns necessitated plans for the preservation of remaining open space, in which landscape architects played a significant role. In Canada and the U.S., landscape architects were far less constrained, although they shared the concerns of their European counterparts, such as the need for greenbelts around cities, for scenic preservation, and for low-cost maintenance. The proliferation of shopping malls, new suburbs, cultural centers, revitalized urban cores, and new educational facilities has given landscape architects in the later decades of this century unparalleled opportunities to refine their art and to create new forms. They have become, in conjunction with their colleagues in architecture, engineering, planning, and public office, the shapers of both the future and the present physical environment.

20世纪上半叶,民居建筑尝试使建筑与其环境达到更加紧密的结合,瑞典的马克利乌斯(Sven Markelius),芬兰的阿尔瓦·阿尔托(Alvar Aalto),美国的赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)都在自己的作品中体现了这一点。类似加利福尼亚这样气候温和的地区,庭院从建筑中延伸出来(加州花园)。然而,两次世界大战之间的全球范围的经济大萧条迫使设计的主流从宅院转移到了大尺度的公共建设,景观设计师与规划师协同工作,完成社区、城区乃至州省、全国性的项目。二战之后劳动力与原材料价格的上升使得规划与设计必须谨慎小心,尤其是在欧亚两洲,几乎所有的城市都要在严格限制的范围内重建。例如在英国,大量的新城的建设使得对现有的开放空间的保护成为必要,景观设计师在其中扮演着重要的角色。在加拿大和美国,尽管和他们欧洲的同行们有着共同的观点,景观设计师却要相对自由得多,比如对城市周边的绿带的需求,在满足保障景观效果的同时尽量降低维护的费用。到了本世纪后期,购物中心的扩张,市郊的建设,文化中心,城市核心地区的复苏,更多的教育机构的建立都给了景观设计师们空前的良机,他们不断完善着手法并创造出新的形式。他们在与建筑师,工程师,规划师以及市政官员的合作中不断进步,已经成为当前和未来良好环境的塑造者。

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My translation practice.finish


05.04.04
刚刚开始了一下英译汉。

原文:(摘自之前发表过的Olmsted’s lecture)
What accommodations for recreation can we provide which shall be so agreeable and so accessible to the great body of citizens, and which, while giving decided gratification, shall also cause those who resort to them for pleasure to subject themselves, for the time being, to conditions strongly counteractive to the special enervating conditions of the town? In the study of this question, all forms of recreation may, in the first place, be conveniently arranged under two general heads.… Games chiefly of mental skill, as chess, or athletic sports, as baseball, are examples of means of recreation of the first class, which may be termed exertive recreation; music and the fine arts generally of the second or receptive division.


my translation:
我们能够提供什么样令大多数的市民都接受和理解的休闲的场所,既满足功能要求,又可以随着时间的推移,让那些特意前来的市民获得与沉闷的城市环境完全相反的感受?在这个问题的讨论上,所有的休闲的形式都将首先被划分为这样两个类型。例如象棋这样主要靠头脑的游戏还有棒球这样的体育运动,都属于第一种休闲形式,或者我们可以称之为主动休闲。而象音乐和美术则是第二类,被动的休闲。
(感谢nova对红色部分提供指导~)



05.04.02
第一次进行一些关于LA方面文章的翻译的尝试,先从汉译英开始^^

原文:
饱含感情的规划,可以使人虔诚膜拜得五体投地,可以激励人们勇往直前,甚至使人们的灵魂提升达到一个理想境界。适应是不够的,好的设计还应带来乐趣和灵感。


my translation:
A planning that full of emotion, can be devotional worshipped,
A planning that full of emotion, can spark people to go forward with no fear,
A planning that full of emotion, can even elevate one’s soul to a perfect level.
But, adapt is not enough, a nice design should bring us joy and inspiration.

原文:
剔除负面的要素和引进正面的景观要素能够提高和加强一个地区的景观特征。


my translation:
Eliminate negative factors and add positive ones can improve and strengthen the landscape character of the region.

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Olmsted’s Lecture

奥姆斯特德的一个Lecture,The Unplanned Growth of Cities,对于了解现代园林早期观念的形成有一定帮助。

The pioneering landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who helped design Central Park in New York City, described his vision of the role of parks in urban development in a speech given in Boston, Massachusetts, on February 15, 1870. He understood that the physical and mental well-being of a city’s population translated directly into its economic health. Olmsted also saw parks as emblems of social democracy where all classes of city dwellers could mingle in a rejuvenating environment. Olmsted eventually became discouraged by the lack of public support for his projects and spent his later efforts designing private parks for wealthy clients.

 Olmsted “The Unplanned Growth of Cities”

What accommodations for recreation can we provide which shall be so agreeable and so accessible to the great body of citizens, and which, while giving decided gratification, shall also cause those who resort to them for pleasure to subject themselves, for the time being, to conditions strongly counteractive to the special enervating conditions of the town? In the study of this question, all forms of recreation may, in the first place, be conveniently arranged under two general heads.… Games chiefly of mental skill, as chess, or athletic sports, as baseball, are examples of means of recreation of the first class, which may be termed exertive recreation; music and the fine arts generally of the second or receptive division.…

There is an instinctive inclination to this social, neighborly, unexertive form of recreation among all of us. In one way or another it is sure to be constantly operating upon those millions on millions of men and women who are to pass their lives within a few miles of where we now stand. To what extent it shall operate so as to develop health and virtue will, on many occasions, be simply a question of opportunity and inducement. And this question is one for the determination of which for a thousand years we here today are largely responsible.…

For this purpose neither of the forms of ground we have heretofore considered are at all suitable. We want a ground to which people may easily go after their day’s work is done, and where they may stroll for an hour, seeing, hearing, and feeling nothing of the bustle and jar of the streets—where they shall, in effect, find the city put far away from them. We want the greatest possible contrast with the streets and the shops and the rooms of the town which will be consistent with convenience and the preservation of good order and neatness. We want, especially, the greatest possible contrast with the restraining and confining conditions of the town, those conditions which compel us to walk circumspectly, watchfully, jealously, which compel us to look closely upon others without sympathy. Practically, what we most want is a simple, broad, open space of clean greensward, with sufficient play of surface and a sufficient number of trees about it to supply a variety of light and shade. This we want as a central feature. We want depth of wood enough about it not only for comfort in hot weather but to completely shut out the city from our landscapes.

The word "park," in town nomenclature, should, I think, be reserved for grounds of the character and purpose thus described.

Not only as being the most valuable of all possible forms of public places but regarded simply as a large space which will seriously interrupt crosstown communication wherever it occurs, the question of the site and bounds of the park requires to be determined with much more deliberation and art than is often secured for any problem of distant and extended municipal interests.… The park should, as far as possible, complement the town.

Openness is the one thing you cannot get in buildings. Picturesqueness you can get. Let your buildings be as picturesque as your artists can make them. This is the beauty of a town. Consequently, the beauty of the park should be the other. It should be the beauty of the fields, the meadow, the prairie, of the green pastures, and the still waters. What we want to gain is tranquillity and rest to the mind. Mountains suggest effort. But besides this objection there are others of what I may indicate as the housekeeping class. It is impossible to give the public range over a large extent of ground of a highly picturesque character, unless under very exceptional circumstances, and sufficiently guard against the occurrence of opportunities and temptations to shabbiness, disorder, indecorum, and indecency that will be subversive of every good purpose the park should be designed to fulfill.…

A park, fairly well managed near a large town, will surely become a new center of that town. With the determination of location, size, and boundaries should therefore be associated the duty of arranging new trunk routes of communication between it and the distant parts of the town existing and forecasted.

These may be either narrow informal elongations of the park, varying say from 200 to 500 feet in width and radiating irregularly from it, or if, unfortunately, the town is already laid out in the unhappy way that New York and Brooklyn, San Francisco and Chicago are, and, I am glad to say, Boston is not, on a plan made long years ago by a man who never saw a spring carriage and who had a conscientious dread of the Graces, then we must probably adopt formal parkways. They should be so planned and constructed as never to be noisy and seldom crowded, and so also that the straightforward movement of pleasure carriages need never be obstructed, unless at absolutely necessary crossings, by slow-going, heavy vehicles used for commercial purposes.

If possible, also, they should be branched or reticulated with other ways of a similar class, so that no part of the town should finally be many minutes’ walk from some one of them; and they should be made interesting by a process of planting and decoration, so that in necessarily passing through them, whether in going to or from the park, or to and from business, some substantial recreative advantage may be incidentally gained. It is a common error to regard a park as something to be produced complete in itself, as a picture to be painted on canvas. It should rather be planned as one to be done in fresco, with constant consideration of exterior objects, some of them quite at a distance and even existing as yet only in the imagination of the painter.…

The New York legislature of 1851 passed a bill providing for a park on the east side of the island. Afterward, the same legislature, precipitately and quite as an afterthought, passed the act under which the city took title to the site of the greater part of the present Central Park.… The question of the relative value of what is called offhand common sense, and of special, deliberate, businesslike study, must be settled in the case of the Central Park, by a comparison of benefit with cost. During the last four years, over 30 million visits have been made to the park by actual count, and many have passed uncounted. From 50,000 to 80,000 persons on foot, 30,000 in carriages, and 4,000 to 5,000 on horseback have often entered it in a day.

Among the frequent visitors, I have found all those who, a few years ago, believed it impossible that there should ever be a park in this republican country—and especially in New York of all places in this country—which would be a suitable place of resort for "gentlemen." They, their wives and daughters, frequent the park more than they do the opera or the church. There are many men of wealth who resort to the park habituall
y and regularly, as much so as businessmen to their places of business. Of course, there is a reason for it, and a reason based upon their experience.

As to the effect on public health, there is no question that it is already great. The testimony of the older physicians of the city will be found unanimous on this point. Says one: "Where I formerly ordered patients of a certain class to give up their business altogether and go out of town, I now often advise simply moderation and prescribe a ride in the park before going to their offices, and again a drive with their families before dinner. By simply adopting this course as a habit, men who have been breaking down frequently recover tone rapidly and are able to retain an active and controlling influence in an important business, from which they would have otherwise been forced to retire. I direct schoolgirls, under certain circumstances, to be taken wholly, or in part, from their studies and sent to spend several hours a day rambling on foot in the park."

The lives of women and children too poor to be sent to the country can now be saved in thousands of instances by making them go to the park. During a hot day in July last, I counted at one time in the park eighteen separate groups, consisting of mothers with their children, most of whom were under school age, taking picnic dinners which they had brought from home with them. The practice is increasing under medical advice, especially when summer complaint is rife.

The much greater rapidity with which patients convalesce and may be returned with safety to their ordinary occupations after severe illness, when they can be sent to the park for a few hours a day, is beginning to be understood. The addition thus made to the productive labor of the city is not unimportant.

The park, moreover, has had a very marked effect in making the city attractive to visitors, and in thus increasing its trade, and causing many who have made fortunes elsewhere to take up their residence and become taxpayers in it—a much greater effect in this way, beyond all question, than all the colleges, schools, libraries, museums, and art galleries which the city possesses. It has also induced many foreigners who have grown rich in the country, and who would otherwise have gone to Europe to enjoy their wealth, to settle permanently in the city.

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LA ..from MS Encarta

摘自微软出品的百科全书软件Encarta,虽然内容不知道有没有经过业内人士的认同,但一些词汇确实对我们是非常有用的

What is Landscape Architecture


quote from Microsoft software Encarta Reference Library


Introduction

Landscape Architecture, the science and art of modifying land areas by organizing natural, cultivated, or constructed elements according to a comprehensive, aesthetic plan. These elements include topographical features such as hills, valleys, rivers, and ponds; growing things such as trees, shrubbery, grass, and flowers; and constructions such as buildings, terraces, roads, bridges, fountains, and statuary. No unalterable rules exist in landscape architecture because each plot of ground offers unique problems caused by variation in contour, climate, and surrounding areas.

Landscape architecture was formerly called landscape gardening and was limited to the creation of gardens around private dwellings. Today landscape architecture covers a much wider area of concerns, ranging from the setting out of small gardens to the ordering of parks, malls, and highways. It includes landscape gardening, which is now understood as the work done by commercial gardeners, who install and care for flowers and greenery according to the design of landscape architects. The landscape architect, who usually holds an academic degree in this field, has the same professional standing as an architect or engineer and receives a fee directly from the client. The landscape gardener may be a commercial contractor or an amateur, who landscapes the grounds of a private home. Most large-scale gardens are planned by landscape architects, who provide for grading and drainage as well as for decorative design. Small gardens usually do not require the services of a landscape architect.


PRINCIPLES

Whatever the scale of the project, the landscape architect first studies the site. Working alone or with a town planner, traffic engineer, or building architect, as the project requires, the landscape architect considers the proposed use for the site. Other considerations are the layout of the terrain, climate and soil conditions, and costs. Once this information is known, the landscape architect proceeds to actual design.

An overall plan is established, which might be a formal garden based on a symmetrical arrangement of geometric beds or an informal arrangement of planting to make as much use as possible of the natural characteristics of the site. A plan might also be for a Japanese garden emphasizing asymmetrical placement of rocks and sand, for a desert garden, or for a simplified massing of naturalistic shrubbery.

The landscape architect’s plan takes into account proportion and scale. A small walled garden, for example, is scaled to the close-range view of its occupant; a large park, however, benefits from spacious vistas and massive groupings of trees. The plan also takes advantage of natural land formations, such as hills or pools, or alters them. The plan may provide for subdivisions of space, whether these are a series of enclosures containing different colors or other variations or are loosely defined areas that flow into one another.

The landscape architect also considers contrasts in shady masses and open, sunny spaces, especially in relation to the climate. Contrasts in the size, color, and texture of plant material are also important. Planting may be designed according to season so that different parts of a garden bloom at different times. A successful plan also requires knowledge of plant characteristics, needs, and limitations. Other elements in a landscape architect’s plan may be fountains, streams, and pools; sculpture and benches; walls, walks, and terraces; and small structures such as gazebos, kiosks, and trellises.


Ancient World

As early as the 3rd millennium bc, the Egyptians planted gardens within the walled enclosures surrounding their homes. In time these gardens came to be formally laid out around a rectangular fish pond flanked by orderly rows of fruit trees and ornamental plants, as seen in tomb paintings.

In Mesopotamia, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the World. They included full-size trees planted on earth-covered terraces raised on stone vaults in a corner of the palace complex of Nebuchadnezzar II. In the highlands to the north, the Assyrians and Persians developed great tree-filled parks for hunting on horseback. They also planned rectangular walled formal gardens, irrigated by pools and canals and shaded by trees, usually set in vast barren plains. These gardens symbolized paradise and inspired Persian carpet designs.

In ancient Greece, sacred groves were preserved as the habitats of divinities. Greek houses included a walled court or garden usually surrounded by a colonnade. In 5th-century bc Athens public gardens and colonnaded walks attached to the Academy (“school”) and the Lyceum (“gymnasium”) were much frequented by philosophers and their disciples.

Roman houses, similar to Greek houses, included a colonnaded garden, as depicted in wall paintings at Pompeii and as described by Pliny the Elder. Villas on the hilly terrain near Rome were designed with terraced gardens. Rich Romans, such as Lucullus, Maecenas, and Sallust, laid out lavish pleasure grounds including porticoes, banqueting halls, and sculpture. The vast grounds of the Emperor Hadrian’s villa near Tivoli (2nd century ad) were magnificently landscaped. The Roman populace enjoyed gardens attached to the public baths.


NON-WESTERN WORLD

Katsura Detached Palace, Kyōto Katsura Detached Palace, in Kyōto, Japan, was completed about 1662, during the Edo period, for a prince of the imperial family. The buildings of the palace complex were designed to reflect the clean, simple lines of classic Japanese teahouses, with some innovative restatements. The surrounding garden was carefully planned and executed to achieve an integrated effect.FPG International, LLC/J. Kugler

The Muslims, living where the climate is generally hot and dry, were inspired by the desert oasis and the ancient Persian paradise garden centered on water. Muslim gardens were usually one or more enclosed courts surrounded by cool arcades and planted with trees and shrubs. They were enlivened with colored tilework, fountains and pools, and the interplay of light and shade. Before the 15th century, the Moors in Spain built such gardens at Córdoba, Toledo, and especially at the Alhambra in Granada. Similar gardens, in which flowers, fruit trees, water, and shade were arranged in a unified composition, were built by the Mughals in 17th- and 18th-century India. The most notable examples are the Taj Mahal gardens in Agra and the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore.

In China, palaces, temples, and houses were built around a series of courtyards, which might include trees and plants often in pots that could be changed with the seasons, and pools. The Imperial City in Beijing contained elaborate pleasure gardens with trees, artificial lakes and hillocks, bridges, and pavilions.

Japan has a long tradition of gardens inspired by Chinese and Korean models. In former times, palaces, temples, teahouses, and private houses all had garden settings that were closely integrated with the buildings. Kyōto was especially famous for its gardens. The gardens included pools and waterfalls; rocks, stone, and sand; and evergreens. They might also contain stone lanterns and sculptures and wooden bridges, gates, and pavilions. Every element of a garden was carefully planned, sometimes by Zen monks and painters, to create an effect of restraint, harmony, and peace, which is exemplified by the extant Katsura Detached Palace gardens in Kyōto. Such traditions continue to some extent in modern Japan and have influenced Western landscape
architects.


MEDIEVAL, RENAISSANCE, AND BAROQUE PERIODS

In medieval Europe, ravaged by invasions and incessant wars, gardens were generally small and enclosed for protection within the fortified walls of monasteries and castles. At the 9th-century Swiss abbey of St. Gall the large garden was divided into four areas, for herbs, vegetables, fruits, and flowers. The gardens of most monasteries were surrounded by cloistered walks and had a well or fountain at the center, possibly inspired by Persian gardens, which was intended to enhance meditation. Castles might have a kitchen or herb garden, a private ornamental garden for the lord and lady, and a larger grassy area for the pleasure of the court.

During the Renaissance in Italy when conditions became more stable, castles gave way to palaces and villas with extensive grounds landscaped in the Roman tradition. The architect of the house usually designed its setting as well, thus ensuring a harmonious relationship between the two. The symmetrical, classically inspired plan of the house was repeated in the grounds. Laid out along a central axis, avenues, walks, and steps led from terrace to terrace, which, wherever possible, afforded fine views of the countryside. Borders of tall, dark cypresses and clipped yew hedges, geometric flower beds, stone balustrades, fountains, and sculptures conformed strictly to the overall plan. Examples from the 15th century include the gardens of the Medici, Palmieri, and La Pietra villas in or near Florence. Among increasingly formal and elaborate villa complexes in the 16th century are the Villa Lante in Bagnaia and the Villa Farnese in Caprarola, both designed by Giacomo da Vignola. Others are the Villa Madama and the Villa Medici in Rome and the Villa d’Este in Tivoli.

Italian gardens of the 17th century became even more complex in the dramatic baroque style. They were distinguished by lavish use of serpentine lines, groups of sculptured allegorical figures in violent movement, and a multiplicity of spouting fountains and waterfalls. Examples are the Villa Aldobrandini in Frascati, Villa Garzoni in Collodi, Villa Giovio in Como, and the gardens on the Isola Bella in Lake Maggiore.


ROMANTIC PERIOD

In the late 18th century the rise of romanticism, with its emphasis on untamed nature, the picturesque, the past, and the exotic, led to important changes in landscape architecture as well as in other arts. The shift began in England. In place of the patterned formality of Le Nôtre’s designs, architects such as Capability Brown preferred a new, softer romantic style that imitated rather than disciplined nature. At such great houses as Blenheim Palace and Chatsworth, Brown replaced the parterres of symmetrically arranged flower beds and straight walks with sweeping lawns, sloping hills with curving paths, and rivers and ponds punctuated by informally planted groups of trees and shrubbery, to achieve the effect of a wilderness. The English landscape architect Humphry Repton modified the style, believing that a house was best set off by formal flower beds that merged by subtle degrees into a naturalistic background. These so-called English gardens often incorporated “follies,” fake medieval ruins and Roman temples, inspired by the 17th-century paintings of the Roman countryside by Claude Lorrain and his followers. Chinese pavilions and other exotica were inspired by engravings of Chinese gardens in travel books by such travelers as the architect Sir William Chambers.

The English romantic style spread to the rest of Europe by way of France, where a notable example of the style was created at Ermenonville. As late as the reign of Napoleon the English romantic style was employed by the engineer Jean Charles Adolphe Alphandin laying out the great parks of Paris, which exerted an immediate international influence. In Germany and Austria, the romantic style was enthusiastically endorsed by Prince Hermann von Puckler-Muskau, who created a romantic park on his estate near Berlin and published the influential Hints on Landscape Gardening (1835).

The romantic style was introduced in North America by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello, his Virginia estate. The most important example of this style is Central Park, New York City, designed in 1857 by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. It was the first major public example of landscape architecture in the U.S. and was so successful both as a municipal enterprise and as a work of art that by 1870 it had influenced the creation of public parks, many of them designed by Olmsted and Vaux, all over the nation. The profession of landscape architecture, as distinct from architecture and horticulture, was established largely through the success of Olmsted and Vaux, who also worked at the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. At about the same time, the Boston landscape architect Charles Eliot did much to further interest in metropolitan landscape parks as recreational areas that could relieve city congestion.


20TH CENTURY

Domestic architecture in the first half of the 20th century attempted to achieve a closer integration of the house with its surroundings, as seen in the works of Sven Markelius in Sweden, Alvar Aalto in Finland, and Frank Lloyd Wright in the U.S. In areas with mild climates, such as California, a garden might be continued within the house. The worldwide economic depression between the two world wars, however, forced a shift from domestic settings to large-scale public works, in which landscape architects and planners worked together on entire communities, regional areas, and vast state and national projects. The rising costs of labor and materials after World War II made careful planning imperative, especially in Europe and Asia, where entire cities had to be rebuilt within tightly restricted areas. In England, for example, the wholesale creation of new towns necessitated plans for the preservation of remaining open space, in which landscape architects played a significant role. In Canada and the U.S., landscape architects were far less constrained, although they shared the concerns of their European counterparts, such as the need for greenbelts around cities, for scenic preservation, and for low-cost maintenance. The proliferation of shopping malls, new suburbs, cultural centers, revitalized urban cores, and new educational facilities has given landscape architects in the later decades of this century unparalleled opportunities to refine their art and to create new forms. They have become, in conjunction with their colleagues in architecture, engineering, planning, and public office, the shapers of both the future and the present physical environment.

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