Gossip

Adobe吃掉Macromedia

天极网4月20日消息:Adobe公司4月18日宣布签署一项正式协议,以价值大约34亿美元的全股票交易方式收购Macromedia。


在合并公司中,Chizen将继续担任首席执行官一职,Shantanu Narayen也将保持总裁和首席运营官的职位。原Macromedia总裁和首席执行官Stephen Elop,将在合并公司中担任全球事务运营总裁,Murray Demo仍然是执行副总裁兼首席财务官,John Warnock博士和Charles Geschke博士将成为合并公司的联合董事会主席,原Macromedia 董事会主席Rob Burgess也将加入Adobe董事会.


可怕的消息,图像业真正的巨无霸产生…………adobe难道是要与微软抗衡?还有最近google进军图象处理界的picasa…………这趟浑水是越来越多的脚掺和进来了……

我可爱的Fireworks呀--不知道会不会就悄无声息的整合进Photoshop里……还好,我习惯用AI,freehand的加盟必将更挫CoralDraw,不过说不准adobe会不会有干掉Painter的想法,他完全做得到。

其实adobe想要的mm的东西还应该是DW(顺便包括Coldfusion)和Flash在网络内的统治地位

再加上PDF,还有Premier和AfterEffect这两个业界旗舰自不必说,据说Adobe还有收购Opera的想法……


以后也许就会这样:MS(能吃掉Apple吗?),Adobe(再把Coral也吃了),Autodesk(吃掉discreet),对,再加上个Google,挺好挺好……学俺们这个的就被这几个公司垄断了

Standard
Design

Harvard Design School Project for Reclamation Excellence

被人抓了壮丁…………
要求一个多小时之内翻译出了这个东东………
自己都没谱………………
说是给即将召开的“2005中外著名风景园林专家学术报告会”使用的同声传译文稿,是翻译大师的文章,惶恐ing…


Case Study B:
Harvard Design School Project for Reclamation Excellence (P-REX)
Location: International

哈佛设计学院的土地改良计划(Project for Reclamation Excellence (P-REX))
范围:全球性


The P-REX promotes new methods for reclaiming altered landscape of natural resource extraction in the environment through applied research, education and communications. The P-REX partners with like-minded groups to implement its multidisciplinary research program. Partner institutions include, municipalities, state and federal agencies, universities, foundations, and corporations involved in design, engineering and environmental services, mining, property development, and manufacturing. With our partners we leverage our combined expertise and resources to achieve both shared and respective objectives.

P-REX旨在通过应用研究、教育及交流为改良自然环境中因资源开采而破坏了的景观提供了新的方法。P-REX通过联合各个共同兴趣小组来实现它的多学科综合研究项目。合作机构包括:联邦、州和区各级政府部门,各大学与基金会,以及涉及设计、工程、环境维护、矿业、房地产、制造业等的各个企业。我们与合作伙伴一起协调我们整合的技术与资源来达到我们共同的和各自的目的。

Another source of motivation for this Project is the recognition that domestic and international natural resource extraction and development will increase over the next few decades as industrial production globalizes. Few places outside of North America have fully developed standards and programs for reclaiming mined lands. The following are examples of the types of programs that are housed within P-REX:

这个项目的另一个动机就是这样一个共识,国内与国际的资源开发与利用将在几十年之内与工业生产一样实现全球化。在北美之外的地区很少建立有完整的关于回收改良开采过的土地的标准和项目。下面就是一些基于P-REX的项目的例子:

1. ‘Best Design Practices’ in national/international reclamation design.
P-REX assembles the parties from a host of countries, provinces, states, agencies, regulators, and companies to participate in the development of criteria and standards for the review and evaluation of projects that are submitted from around the world. The criteria and standards are used to guide evaluation panels or “juries” to evaluate projects that had been submitted for “design” awards.


1.国家或国际的改良项目中的最优设计方法
P-REX聚集了许多的国家、州省各级政府、管理者和公司到一起参与到规格和标准的完善,用这些更加完善的标准来评估从世界各地递交上来的计划项目。这些标准原来是用于指导评估小组或委员会来对参与设计评选的项目的评估。

2.International Perspective on Innovative Reclamation Techniques for Metal Mines
Innovative post-mine land use case studies, technologies, techniques, and other aspects of reclaiming metal mines are examined from around the globe. Potential panelists include: environmental organizations from around the globe, government entities which are currently addressing or anticipated to be looking at mining development activities from around the world, and various small and large mining companies and industry associations. Other potential topics include: Public and Private Land Use Issues; Landscape Ecology and Evolutionary Strategies to Reclamation Success; Water Resource Issues.


2.国际上关于金属矿藏的创新改良技术的看法
在开采后用地的使用情况的研究,技术手段以及改良金属矿藏用地的其他方面使用创新的方法的话,都应在全球范围内进行检验。参与讨论的小组应该包括:来自全球各地的环境组织,那些正在或即将关注矿藏开发的政府部门,以及各种大大小小的矿业公司和工业协会。其他的可能讨论的话题还包括:公共和个人的土地使用问题;景观生态及确保改良成功的发展策略;水资源问题。

Whether through reprogramming landscape surface, deploying technologies and ecologies for site regeneration, or planning alteration prior to groundbreaking, landscape architects need to become more involved in this growing body of work, and the current resource structure within the Department is primed to lead this global discussion. Reclamation work continues to be fruitful and is evolving. Collaborative working relationships are developing on two fronts, both of which will create opportunities for the Department in the near future.

无论是通过对地表的重组,或通过技术和生态手段进行场地重建,还是在破坏场地前进行改造,景观设计师们都需要更加积极的参与到这个发展的工作中来,并且当前风景园林系的资源政策正是要引领这个全球化的讨论。改良工作不断的获得成果并且其自身也在不断完善。协同工作的关系也在两个方面得到发展,并都将在不远的将来为政府带来无限良机。

One front involves collaboration with faculty at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and their Project on American Indian Economic Development. We are working together to identify sites within American Indian Reservations for simulated landscape reclamation work. The high percentage of illiteracy amongst Native American tribes often makes it extremely difficult for tribal members to reach consensus on land use development and natural resource extraction issues, leaving them vulnerable to outside industrial interests. We believe the work will have broad foundational support, deep educational and practical benefits, and could form a long-term interdisciplinary project for our respective schools.

一个方面包括与哈佛大学的肯尼迪政体学院(Kennedy School of Government)的合作,他们的项目是拉动美国印第安地区经济的发展。我们协同进行对印第安保留地地区资源的类似的改良工作的识别。由于土著部落中的过高的文盲率,使得他们在关于土地的利用及资源的开采方面很难达成共识,使得他们很容易在外界的工业入侵中蒙受损失。我们相信我们的工作能够提供广阔的基础支持,显著的教育与实践效益,并且可以为我们各自的学校建立起长期的多学科综合的项目。

The second front of the reclamation work is forming within the mining industry itself, which perpetually rethinks its landscape reclamation priorities, (and will have enough reclamation work to cover over 100 thousand square miles and last until the year 2240). Within the next year or two I expect real operating mines to collaborate with a GSD entity to advance landscape reclamation beyond what it is today-experimenting with open-ended design, landscape reprogramming and ecological transformation at scales rarely considered in current practice, but which could be applied at all scales of Landscape Architecture.

另一个方面,使得矿业企业能够永久的重新考虑土地改良的重要性(这将带来足够多的改良工作,包括10万平方公里以上的面积并将持续到2240年)。我期望在一年或两年之内就出现实际的与GSD合作的土地改良项目,而不是现阶段仍然停留在实验阶段的开放性设计。当今的尝试几乎没有
考虑过各种尺度上的景观重组和生态转换,但实际上则是应该在景观设计的所有尺度上得以实施。

Standard
Design

What is Landscape Architecture

05.04.08-04.18

翻译前面发表过的摘自Encarta的关于LA的文章
(部分译名参考《西方造园变迁史》针之谷钟吉著,邹洪灿译。括号内部分为译注。)

04.18 ,这个大头文章终于弄完了……收获不小。准备啃下一个骨头~


What is Landscape Architecture

quote from Microsoft software Encarta Reference Library
translated by buZz


■ Introduction
概况


Landscape Architecture, the science and art of modifying land areas by organizing natural, cultivated, or constructed elements according to a comprehensive, aesthetic plan. These elements include topographical features such as hills, valleys, rivers, and ponds; growing things such as trees, shrubbery, grass, and flowers; and constructions such as buildings, terraces, roads, bridges, fountains, and statuary. No unalterable rules exist in landscape architecture because each plot of ground offers unique problems caused by variation in contour, climate, and surrounding areas.

景观设计,既是科学,也是艺术,它对大地造型,在周密并符合美学原则的计划下合理的组织自然的,耕种的或建筑的各类元素。这些元素包括:山丘、河流等地形地貌,乔灌花草等生长的植物,以及房屋、路桥、雕塑等建造物。在景观设计中不存在教条的规矩,由于地形,气候以及周边环境的差异,所以每一块场地都有着其唯一的独特的解决方案。

Landscape architecture was formerly called landscape gardening and was limited to the creation of gardens around private dwellings. Today landscape architecture covers a much wider area of concerns, ranging from the setting out of small gardens to the ordering of parks, malls, and highways. It includes landscape gardening, which is now understood as the work done by commercial gardeners, who install and care for flowers and greenery according to the design of landscape architects. The landscape architect, who usually holds an academic degree in this field, has the same professional standing as an architect or engineer and receives a fee directly from the client. The landscape gardener may be a commercial contractor or an amateur, who landscapes the grounds of a private home. Most large-scale gardens are planned by landscape architects, who provide for grading and drainage as well as for decorative design. Small gardens usually do not require the services of a landscape architect.

景观设计在以前被称为Landscape Gardening,并且被局限在了对私人住宅庭院的建造。但是当前景观设计已经覆盖了相当广的领域,包括从一个小花园的建造到对公园、街区、高速路周边的治理。Landscape Gardening目前已经属于景观设计的范畴之内,不过它的含义已经改变为在景观设计师的设计的基础之上,由职业的园艺师完成的对花卉草木的种植与养护。景观设计师,一般会拥有专业的学位,与建筑师和工程师具有同样的职业身份,并且直接从客户手中获得报酬。园艺师则可能是一个将私人住宅景观化的职业承包商或是园艺爱好者。几乎所有的大尺度的园林都由景观设计师来进行规划,他们能在做好地形与排水的同时还能兼顾美化装饰。小的花园一般不需要景观设计师的参与。

■ PRINCIPLES
原则


Whatever the scale of the project, the landscape architect first studies the site. Working alone or with a town planner, traffic engineer, or building architect, as the project requires, the landscape architect considers the proposed use for the site. Other considerations are the layout of the terrain, climate and soil conditions, and costs. Once this information is known, the landscape architect proceeds to actual design.

无论项目的尺度如何,景观设计师首先都要对场地进行调查。按照项目的需要,景观设计师或者独立工作,或者与城镇规划师,道路工程师,建筑师等共同斟酌场地的预期用途。地形的规划,气候,土壤条件以及预算也都是需要考虑的内容。当这些内容都清楚了之后,景观设计师将着手进行实际的设计。

An overall plan is established, which might be a formal garden based on a symmetrical arrangement of geometric beds or an informal arrangement of planting to make as much use as possible of the natural characteristics of the site. A plan might also be for a Japanese garden emphasizing asymmetrical placement of rocks and sand, for a desert garden, or for a simplified massing of naturalistic shrubbery.

首先建立一个总体的方案,其形式可能是一个由几何构型对称布局的古典的园林,也可能是一个试图通过种植来尽可能的利用场地自然条件的不规则布局。这个方案也可能倾向于一个强调不规则置石的日本园林,或者一个岩石园,或者就是一个纯粹的自然灌木林。

The landscape architect’s plan takes into account proportion and scale. A small walled garden, for example, is scaled to the close-range view of its occupant; a large park, however, benefits from spacious vistas and massive groupings of trees. The plan also takes advantage of natural land formations, such as hills or pools, or alters them. The plan may provide for subdivisions of space, whether these are a series of enclosures containing different colors or other variations or are loosely defined areas that flow into one another.

景观设计师的方案非常重视比例与尺度。比如说,一个围墙之内的小庭院的尺度要满足其使用者的近距离的视线的要求;得益于其空间上的丰富多变以及大量群植的树木而形成的景观,大公园也能获得宜人的尺度。方案中自然的地形的因素也十分重要,比如山地或者水面,要充分利用或者改造它们。同时方案也不能忽略细部,比如色彩丰富的篱笆、区域之间的过渡等。

The landscape architect also considers contrasts in shady masses and open, sunny spaces, especially in relation to the climate. Contrasts in the size, color, and texture of plant material are also important. Planting may be designed according to season so that different parts of a garden bloom at different times. A successful plan also requires knowledge of plant characteristics, needs, and limitations. Other elements in a landscape architect’s plan may be fountains, streams, and pools; sculpture and benches; walls, walks, and terraces; and small structures such as gazebos, kiosks, and trellises.

景观设计师还要考虑封闭多荫与开敞明亮的空间之间的对比,尤其是与气候有关的情况。植物的大小,颜色,纹理上的对比也同样重要。种植一般是围绕季相进行设计,来达到园景的四时不同。一个成功的设计还要求掌握植物的生理特性、需求和种植的限制。在一个景观设计师的方案中还有一些其他的元素,比如喷泉、小溪、水池;比如雕塑小品和座椅;比如围墙、步道、坡地;还有亭台阁这样的小型构筑物。

■ Ancient World
古代世界


As early as the 3rd millennium bc, the Egyptians planted gardens within the walled enclosures surrounding their homes. In time these gardens came to be formally laid out around a rectangular fish pond flanked by orderly rows of fruit trees and
ornamental plants, as seen in tomb paintings.


早在公元前3000年,埃及人就在他们的住宅周围建造了有围墙的花园。随着时间的推移,这些花园逐渐形成了一种标准的形式:一个矩形的鱼池,两侧围有行植的果树和观赏植物,就像在墓穴中看到的绘画一样。

In Mesopotamia, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the World. They included full-size trees planted on earth-covered terraces raised on stone vaults in a corner of the palace complex of Nebuchadnezzar II. In the highlands to the north, the Assyrians and Persians developed great tree-filled parks for hunting on horseback. They also planned rectangular walled formal gardens, irrigated by pools and canals and shaded by trees, usually set in vast barren plains. These gardens symbolized paradise and inspired Persian carpet designs.

在美索不达米亚,则有世界七大奇迹之一的巴比伦空中花园。在尼布甲尼撒二世(Nebuchadnezzar II,古巴比伦国王)的宫殿之内,人们将全高的树木种植在覆土的由石拱支撑的平台上。在北方的高地上,亚述人和波斯人则发展了用于狩猎的密林园。他们同样也建造规则的有围墙的传统庭院,里面由水池和沟渠灌溉,树荫遮阳,这样的庭院一般都建造在广阔的贫瘠的平原上。这些庭院象征着人们心中向往的天堂的景象,同时也为波斯地毯的设计提供了大量的灵感。

In ancient Greece, sacred groves were preserved as the habitats of divinities. Greek houses included a walled court or garden usually surrounded by a colonnade. In 5th-century bc Athens public gardens and colonnaded walks attached to the Academy (“school”) and the Lyceum (“gymnasium”) were much frequented by philosophers and their disciples.

在古希腊,人们将庄严的小树林奉为神的住所。希腊的住宅包括一个一般由柱廊围合的有围墙的庭院或花园。公元前5世纪的雅典,依附于学院与讲堂(Academy and Lyceum)的公共花园与柱廊步道更多的是被哲学家与他们的弟子们光顾。

Roman houses, similar to Greek houses, included a colonnaded garden, as depicted in wall paintings at Pompeii and as described by Pliny the Elder. Villas on the hilly terrain near Rome were designed with terraced gardens. Rich Romans, such as Lucullus, Maecenas, and Sallust, laid out lavish pleasure grounds including porticoes, banqueting halls, and sculpture. The vast grounds of the Emperor Hadrian’s villa near Tivoli (2nd century ad) were magnificently landscaped. The Roman populace enjoyed gardens attached to the public baths.

罗马的住宅,与希腊的一样,包括一个柱廊围合的花园,就像在庞贝发现的壁画以及老普林尼(Pliny the Elder,罗马学者)描绘的那样。罗马附近山丘地带的别墅被设计成了台地园。罗马的富豪,比如卢库勒斯(Lucullus,古罗马将军兼执政官, 以巨富和举办豪华大宴著名)、米西奈斯(Maecenas,著名的文学艺术资助者)、撒拉斯特(Sallust,罗马历史学家)等,投资建设了大量奢华的场所包括柱廊、宴会厅以及雕塑。广阔的哈德良行宫(Emperor Hadrian’s villa)拥有宏伟壮丽的景观。罗马的公众则很喜欢公共浴室附带的庭院花园。

■ NON-WESTERN WORLD
非西方世界


The Muslims, living where the climate is generally hot and dry, were inspired by the desert oasis and the ancient Persian paradise garden centered on water. Muslim gardens were usually one or more enclosed courts surrounded by cool arcades and planted with trees and shrubs. They were enlivened with colored tilework, fountains and pools, and the interplay of light and shade. Before the 15th century, the Moors in Spain built such gardens at Córdoba, Toledo, and especially at the Alhambra in Granada. Similar gardens, in which flowers, fruit trees, water, and shade were arranged in a unified composition, were built by the Mughals in 17th- and 18th-century India. The most notable examples are the Taj Mahal gardens in Agra and the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore.

居住在炎热干旱地区的穆斯林人民,从沙漠绿洲以及古波斯人的以水为中心的天堂花园获得了灵感。穆斯林的庭院一般是一面或多面封闭的,四周是凉爽的拱廊,多种植乔灌木。绚丽的砖瓦,水池和喷泉,以及变幻莫测的光影使穆斯林的庭院充满了生气。15世纪之前,摩尔人在西班牙建造了大量穆斯林风格的园林,比如科尔多瓦(Córdoba)、托莱多(Toledo),其中最著名的当属格拉纳达(Granada)的阿尔罕布拉宫(Alhambra)。同样的植物,同样的水池,同样的光影变换,莫卧尔帝国在在17-18世纪的印度以同样的手法建造了同样的园林。其中最负盛名的是位于阿格拉的泰姬陵(Taj Mahal gardens)以及位于拉合尔的夏利马庭院(Shalimar Gardens)。

In China, palaces, temples, and houses were built around a series of courtyards, which might include trees and plants often in pots that could be changed with the seasons, and pools. The Imperial City in Beijing contained elaborate pleasure gardens with trees, artificial lakes and hillocks, bridges, and pavilions.

在中国,无论宫殿、寺庙或者住宅都会有庭院围绕,庭院中一般都会有树木植物和池塘,植物一般是栽种在盆中,这样可以随着季节的变化而改变位置或者种类。北京的皇城中拥有众多赏心悦目的花园,花园中有树木,人工湖和假山,桥、亭等。

Japan has a long tradition of gardens inspired by Chinese and Korean models. In former times, palaces, temples, teahouses, and private houses all had garden settings that were closely integrated with the buildings. Kyōto was especially famous for its gardens. The gardens included pools and waterfalls; rocks, stone, and sand; and evergreens. They might also contain stone lanterns and sculptures and wooden bridges, gates, and pavilions. Every element of a garden was carefully planned, sometimes by Zen monks and painters, to create an effect of restraint, harmony, and peace, which is exemplified by the extant Katsura Detached Palace gardens in Kyōto. Such traditions continue to some extent in modern Japan and have influenced Western landscape architects.

日本的园林有着悠久的历史,当然基本上都是从中国和朝鲜的园林中获得了的灵感。在古代,日本的宫殿,寺庙,茶室以及私人的住宅都拥有与建筑紧密结合的庭院。京都以其优秀的园林而著称。这些园林有湖,有瀑布,有岩石,有沙地,还种植着很多常绿树。石灯笼,石雕,木桥,木门,亭也是其中不可缺少的。禅宗僧侣和画家一般会参与到园林的设计中来,其中每一个元素都被精心放置以达到一种谨慎、和谐、安宁的气氛,现存的最好例子就是位于京都(Kyōto)的桂离宫(Katsura Detached Palace)。某些传统仍然被当今日本的园林所借鉴,并影响着西方的景观设计师们。

■ MEDIEVAL, RENAISSANCE, AND BAROQUE PERIODS
中世纪,文艺复兴,巴洛克时期


In medieval Europe, ravaged by invasions and incessant wars, gardens were generally small and enclosed for protection within the fortified walls of monasteries and castles. At the 9th-century Swiss abbey of St. Gall the large garden was divided into four areas, for herbs, vegetables, fruits, and flowers. The gardens of most monasteries were surrounded by cloistered walks and had a well or fountain at the center, possibly inspired by Persian gardens, which was intended to
enhance meditation. Castles might have a kitchen or herb garden, a private ornamental garden for the lord and lady, and a larger grassy area for the pleasure of the court.


中世纪的欧洲,由于连绵不断的战火,花园都建造的很小,而且都造在有着坚实围墙的修道院和城堡中求得保护。公元9世纪,瑞士的圣高尔修道院(abbey of St. Gall)的大花园被分成了四个部分,分别用来种植药草、蔬菜、水果和花卉。大多数的修道院庭院都有围廊式步道环绕,在中心有一口井或者一眼泉,也许为的是营造一种利于冥想的环境吧,这种做法很有可能是从波斯园林那里获得的灵感。在城堡中一般会有一个厨房和药草园,一个主要供城堡及其家室使用的以观赏植物为主的花园,以及使整个庭院生机勃勃的大片绿地。

During the Renaissance in Italy when conditions became more stable, castles gave way to palaces and villas with extensive grounds landscaped in the Roman tradition. The architect of the house usually designed its setting as well, thus ensuring a harmonious relationship between the two. The symmetrical, classically inspired plan of the house was repeated in the grounds. Laid out along a central axis, avenues, walks, and steps led from terrace to terrace, which, wherever possible, afforded fine views of the countryside. Borders of tall, dark cypresses and clipped yew hedges, geometric flower beds, stone balustrades, fountains, and sculptures conformed strictly to the overall plan. Examples from the 15th century include the gardens of the Medici, Palmieri, and La Pietra villas in or near Florence. Among increasingly formal and elaborate villa complexes in the 16th century are the Villa Lante in Bagnaia and the Villa Farnese in Caprarola, both designed by Giacomo da Vignola. Others are the Villa Madama and the Villa Medici in Rome and the Villa d’Este in Tivoli.

文艺复兴时期的意大利,环境相对稳定,宫殿和庄园取代了城堡,它们有着更广阔的场地和罗马传统式的风景。房子的建筑师一般也要考虑庭院的设计,因此他们还要确保建筑与园林两者之间和谐的关系。对称的,有着古典主义灵感的建筑布局就这样被不断的重复下去。中央布置一条轴线,周围是林荫路,步道,台地之间的台阶,这些在可能的情况下都要力求展现优美的田园风光。深绿色的柏树屏障,修建过的紫杉篱,几何形花坛,石栏杆,喷泉以及雕塑都严格得按照总体规划来安排。例如15世纪佛罗伦萨附近的美第奇庄园(Medici),Palmieri别墅,La Pietra别墅。到了16世纪,在不断增多的传统的精美的别墅中,复杂成了主调,比较著名的有维格诺拉(Giacomo da Vignola)设计的位于巴尼亚(Bagnaia)的兰特别墅(Villa Lante)和位于卡普拉罗拉(Caprarola)的法尔纳斯别墅(Villa Farnese)。其他的还有罗马的Villa Madama,美第奇别墅(Villa Medici)以及蒂沃利(Tivoli)的埃斯特别墅(Villa d’Este)。

Italian gardens of the 17th century became even more complex in the dramatic baroque style. They were distinguished by lavish use of serpentine lines, groups of sculptured allegorical figures in violent movement, and a multiplicity of spouting fountains and waterfalls. Examples are the Villa Aldobrandini in Frascati, Villa Garzoni in Collodi, Villa Giovio in Como, and the gardens on the Isola Bella in Lake Maggiore.

17世纪意大利的花园变得越来越复杂化了,呈现出一种戏剧化的巴洛克风格。他们的特征是,大量的使用蜿蜒的曲线,具有强烈动感的寓言雕塑,各式各样的喷泉和跌水。比如弗拉斯卡蒂(Frascati)的阿尔多布兰迪尼别墅(Villa Aldobrandini),Villa Garzoni in Collodi,科莫(Como)的乔维奥别墅(Villa Giovio),还有马乔列湖(Lake Maggiore)的伊索拉贝拉别墅(Isola Bella)的花园。

■ ROMANTIC PERIOD
浪漫主义时期


In the late 18th century the rise of romanticism, with its emphasis on untamed nature, the picturesque, the past, and the exotic, led to important changes in landscape architecture as well as in other arts. The shift began in England. In place of the patterned formality of Le N?tre’s designs, architects such as Capability Brown preferred a new, softer romantic style that imitated rather than disciplined nature. At such great houses as Blenheim Palace and Chatsworth, Brown replaced the parterres of symmetrically arranged flower beds and straight walks with sweeping lawns, sloping hills with curving paths, and rivers and ponds punctuated by informally planted groups of trees and shrubbery, to achieve the effect of a wilderness. The English landscape architect Humphry Repton modified the style, believing that a house was best set off by formal flower beds that merged by subtle degrees into a naturalistic background. These so-called English gardens often incorporated “follies,” fake medieval ruins and Roman temples, inspired by the 17th-century paintings of the Roman countryside by Claude Lorrain and his followers. Chinese pavilions and other exotica were inspired by engravings of Chinese gardens in travel books by such travelers as the architect Sir William Chambers.

18世纪末,浪漫主义之风盛行,它推崇未被改造的自然,如画的风景,强调历史和异国风情,使不光在景观设计方面,在其他艺术领域也都产生重大的变革。改变首先从英国开始。在勒诺特设计的传统的图案式的园林中,像能人布朗(Capability Brown)这样的建筑师更倾向于一种新的,柔性的浪漫主义风格。在布伦海姆宫(Blenheim Palace)和查兹沃斯(Chatsworth)这样大规模的园林中,布朗拆毁了几何式的花坛和笔直的步道,取而代之的是开阔的草坪,连绵的小丘上曲折的山路,点缀着自然种植的树木的溪流和池塘,以这种方式来到达一种野趣。英国造园家雷普顿(Humphry Repton)改变了这个状况,他认为最佳的布局应该是一座建筑周围有规则的花坛,然后逐渐的过渡到周边自然的环境中去。这些被称为英国式园林的也会发生一些荒唐事,由于受到17世纪著名的风景画家洛兰(Claude Lorrain)及其追随者的影响,出现了一些仿造的中世纪废墟和罗马的古庙。出现在像钱伯斯爵士(Sir William Chambers)这样的旅行家的游记中的中国园林的版画使得中国式的亭和其他异国风景也出现在英国园林之中。

The English romantic style spread to the rest of Europe by way of France, where a notable example of the style was created at Ermenonville. As late as the reign of Napoleon the English romantic style was employed by the engineer Jean Charles Adolphe Alphandin laying out the great parks of Paris, which exerted an immediate international influence. In Germany and Austria, the romantic style was enthusiastically endorsed by Prince Hermann von Puckler-Muskau, who created a romantic park on his estate near Berlin and published the influential Hints on Landscape Gardening (1835).

英国的浪漫主义风格通过法国影响到了欧洲的其他各国,其中在法国一个比较著名的例子是在阿尔门维尔烈(Ermenonville)的园林。到了拿破仑统治的时期,浪漫主义风格在工程师Jean Charles Adolphe Alphandin的手中产生了巴黎的许多大型园林,并立即造成了国际性的影响。在德国和奥地利,这种浪漫主义风格被庇乌克勒·穆斯考(Hermann von Puckler-Muskau)极力推崇,他在他柏林附近的地产上建造了极富浪漫色彩的穆斯考林苑,并且还在1835年出版了颇具影响力的《造园指南》(《Hints on Landscape Gardening》)一书。

The romantic style was introduced in North America by Thomas Jef
ferson at Monticello, his Virginia estate. The most important example of this style is Central Park, New York City, designed in 1857 by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. It was the first major public example of landscape architecture in the U.S. and was so successful both as a municipal enterprise and as a work of art that by 1870 it had influenced the creation of public parks, many of them designed by Olmsted and Vaux, all over the nation. The profession of landscape architecture, as distinct from architecture and horticulture, was established largely through the success of Olmsted and Vaux, who also worked at the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. At about the same time, the Boston landscape architect Charles Eliot did much to further interest in metropolitan landscape parks as recreational areas that could relieve city congestion.


托马斯?杰佛逊(Thomas Jefferson)通过他在弗吉尼亚的地产中的造园将浪漫主义风格引入北美。最著名的例子便是1857年由奥姆斯特德(Frederick Law Olmsted)和沃克斯(Calvert Vaux)联手设计的纽约中央公园。这是在美国的第一个主要的公共的景观设计的例子,中央公园的成功在于它是市政建设与艺术成果的完美结合。1870年城市公园概念的形成也于中央公园有关,奥姆斯特德和沃克斯还设计了遍布全美的大部分城市公园。为了与建筑学与园艺学区别开,景观设计学科的设立也和奥姆斯特德和沃克斯的成功有着很大的联系,此二人还参与了1893年在芝加哥举行的哥伦比亚世界博览会。与此同时,波士顿的景观设计师查尔斯?埃利奥特(Charles Eliot did)提出了更加前瞻的大都市公园系统的设想,他将城市公园做为一种休闲的地域来减轻城市臃肿的负担。

■ 20TH CENTURY
20世纪


Domestic architecture in the first half of the 20th century attempted to achieve a closer integration of the house with its surroundings, as seen in the works of Sven Markelius in Sweden, Alvar Aalto in Finland, and Frank Lloyd Wright in the U.S. In areas with mild climates, such as California, a garden might be continued within the house. The worldwide economic depression between the two world wars, however, forced a shift from domestic settings to large-scale public works, in which landscape architects and planners worked together on entire communities, regional areas, and vast state and national projects. The rising costs of labor and materials after World War II made careful planning imperative, especially in Europe and Asia, where entire cities had to be rebuilt within tightly restricted areas. In England, for example, the wholesale creation of new towns necessitated plans for the preservation of remaining open space, in which landscape architects played a significant role. In Canada and the U.S., landscape architects were far less constrained, although they shared the concerns of their European counterparts, such as the need for greenbelts around cities, for scenic preservation, and for low-cost maintenance. The proliferation of shopping malls, new suburbs, cultural centers, revitalized urban cores, and new educational facilities has given landscape architects in the later decades of this century unparalleled opportunities to refine their art and to create new forms. They have become, in conjunction with their colleagues in architecture, engineering, planning, and public office, the shapers of both the future and the present physical environment.

20世纪上半叶,民居建筑尝试使建筑与其环境达到更加紧密的结合,瑞典的马克利乌斯(Sven Markelius),芬兰的阿尔瓦·阿尔托(Alvar Aalto),美国的赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)都在自己的作品中体现了这一点。类似加利福尼亚这样气候温和的地区,庭院从建筑中延伸出来(加州花园)。然而,两次世界大战之间的全球范围的经济大萧条迫使设计的主流从宅院转移到了大尺度的公共建设,景观设计师与规划师协同工作,完成社区、城区乃至州省、全国性的项目。二战之后劳动力与原材料价格的上升使得规划与设计必须谨慎小心,尤其是在欧亚两洲,几乎所有的城市都要在严格限制的范围内重建。例如在英国,大量的新城的建设使得对现有的开放空间的保护成为必要,景观设计师在其中扮演着重要的角色。在加拿大和美国,尽管和他们欧洲的同行们有着共同的观点,景观设计师却要相对自由得多,比如对城市周边的绿带的需求,在满足保障景观效果的同时尽量降低维护的费用。到了本世纪后期,购物中心的扩张,市郊的建设,文化中心,城市核心地区的复苏,更多的教育机构的建立都给了景观设计师们空前的良机,他们不断完善着手法并创造出新的形式。他们在与建筑师,工程师,规划师以及市政官员的合作中不断进步,已经成为当前和未来良好环境的塑造者。

Standard
Design

My translation practice.finish


05.04.04
刚刚开始了一下英译汉。

原文:(摘自之前发表过的Olmsted’s lecture)
What accommodations for recreation can we provide which shall be so agreeable and so accessible to the great body of citizens, and which, while giving decided gratification, shall also cause those who resort to them for pleasure to subject themselves, for the time being, to conditions strongly counteractive to the special enervating conditions of the town? In the study of this question, all forms of recreation may, in the first place, be conveniently arranged under two general heads.… Games chiefly of mental skill, as chess, or athletic sports, as baseball, are examples of means of recreation of the first class, which may be termed exertive recreation; music and the fine arts generally of the second or receptive division.


my translation:
我们能够提供什么样令大多数的市民都接受和理解的休闲的场所,既满足功能要求,又可以随着时间的推移,让那些特意前来的市民获得与沉闷的城市环境完全相反的感受?在这个问题的讨论上,所有的休闲的形式都将首先被划分为这样两个类型。例如象棋这样主要靠头脑的游戏还有棒球这样的体育运动,都属于第一种休闲形式,或者我们可以称之为主动休闲。而象音乐和美术则是第二类,被动的休闲。
(感谢nova对红色部分提供指导~)



05.04.02
第一次进行一些关于LA方面文章的翻译的尝试,先从汉译英开始^^

原文:
饱含感情的规划,可以使人虔诚膜拜得五体投地,可以激励人们勇往直前,甚至使人们的灵魂提升达到一个理想境界。适应是不够的,好的设计还应带来乐趣和灵感。


my translation:
A planning that full of emotion, can be devotional worshipped,
A planning that full of emotion, can spark people to go forward with no fear,
A planning that full of emotion, can even elevate one’s soul to a perfect level.
But, adapt is not enough, a nice design should bring us joy and inspiration.

原文:
剔除负面的要素和引进正面的景观要素能够提高和加强一个地区的景观特征。


my translation:
Eliminate negative factors and add positive ones can improve and strengthen the landscape character of the region.

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Cyber

Need Gmail? Tell me

Gmail不介绍了……就是Google提供的高达2G的email服务

If you haven't already heard about Gmail, it's a new search-based webmail
service that offers:

- Over 2,000 megabytes (two gigabytes) of free storage
- Built-in Google search that instantly finds any message you want
- Automatic arrangement of messages and related replies into
"conversations"
- Text ads and related pages that are relevant to the content of your
messages

Gmail is still in an early stage of development. But If you set up an
account, you'll be able to keep it even after we make Gmail more
widely available. We might also ask for your comments and suggestions
periodically and we appreciate your help in making Gmail even better.

如果还不清楚…………无视此文章………………

由于Gmail目前还没有提供正常的注册方式,现有的账号都是通过各种关系来发放,所以以前smth里就有一个Gmail交换版,让大家用一些资源去交换Gmail账号,就是说有了账号的人可以为别人提供账号(就是给对方发一封invite letter)

费尽千辛万苦终于搞到了Gmail,我也有了邀请权~现在无偿提供给来过这里的人

跟帖留下你的email地址就可以了,不要用sina的邮箱,google发不过去的。留id的时候最好用我认识的哈~

收到邀请信之后,点击第一个类似http://gmail.google.com/gmail/a-7a3bfa158c-5bd的连接就可以申请了。

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Gossip

Happy Birthday to Me~

哈哈,不要face了~自己给自己Happy一下~

感谢老爸老妈22年前把我变出来~老妈辛苦!

正好在今天,QQ的等级也刚好升到22级~巧合吧~


还有啥来着?噢,对,去年的今天美术实习去了颐和园,今天其实还有机会的,栽培养护的实习也是去颐和园,虽然我没选,但跟着去也能混着把门票报销了……8过早上没有起来呀…………

秀一下生日蛋糕~Dee和Kady买的~

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Words

小记buzz

很久很久以前的东西了,高中时候别人写给我的,算是送给我的文章。今天翻了一些从家里的电脑上带来的文件夹,翻出了这个东西,以前不知道放哪,有了blog,算是个比较好的地方。

内容上呢,因为文章的主人公是我,所以我不发表什么评论。作者乃密友一头,此人极富传奇色彩,具体怎么传奇…………我也没有写过他的传记,所以说不清,有兴趣的人到时候来问我吧^^

网络是桥,对面走来好友一人 –小记Buzz

(一)
这是一篇写人的文章,而写人的文章以描写相貌开头,在我看来,简直俗不可耐。然而,这一次,我没了主意:不描写他的相貌,我简直不知从哪里起笔,所以,俗也便俗他一回,常言道:”物以稀为贵”,没准儿在别人看来,这还叫”新颖”呢!
他长得头大眼大,面似春饼,肤色黝黑,心宽体壮,据我目测体重至少要在180斤以上,”壮得像头牦牛”。特别是那张”大饼脸”,让我见后有一种特别亲切的感受,实在可爱。如果你想象不出来,那你用过oicq吗?里面的”大脸猫”简直就是他的翻版。
他很可爱。如果让我评价”第一印象”中的他,我除了会说他电脑水平很高以外,就只剩下”可爱”了。
他可爱–不仅仅是相貌、性格,就连这名字都起得可爱。
他”昵称”胖子,”洋名”Buzz,”俗家”叫”(隐藏内容^^)”。
“胖子”叫得亲昵,”(^^)”叫得舒服,而”Buzz”则叫得顺口。
为了这篇文章,我甚至请出了家中最厚的那部英汉辞典,查”Buzz”的中文译文,结果是:buzz:n.1.(蜜蜂等的)嗡嗡声;2.嘈杂声;3.流言……怎么样?有趣吗?但实际上,他起这么个英文名字是在看了那部美国的动画片《玩具总动员》之后,里面的主角叫”Buzz”,于是,与”Buzz”颇为神似的他就有了这么个可爱的名字。
(二)
写一个人,在我看来应该从与他交流的最初开始写,这样比较会容易交待清楚故事的”来龙去脉”,在这一点上,评书本子中的”书中暗表”挺有用的。本来,我也想借用一下,来插叙上一段儿,但后来发现,没必要了,因为,如果我们交往的起源不交待的话,那我的这篇文章也就成了”无源之水”了–那是最让我难忘的经历。
(三)
高一下学期,Buzz的五班开通了实验园里有史以来的第一个班级主页”我们在线”,Buzz是五班”We Studio”的主力成员。
自从五班的”我们在线”开通以后,实验园内便掀起了一股班级、个人、组织团体网上建页的狂潮,大小网站相继开通。我为当时七班做的”青春在线”便是其中之一。
(四)
在这个渴望沟通与交流的季节,对于对网络还很陌生与懵懂、处在最初的感性认识阶段的我们,各个班级的主页无疑成了同学们网上的家,吸引了很多同学们的光临。热热闹闹,人气很旺。
有一段时期,经过我的苦心经营和我们工作组的大力宣传,七班的”青春在线”人气值甚至一度超过了”我们在线”,作为斑竹,我自然欣喜非常,但我始终都不曾忘记、并且也在时时提醒每一个小组成员:”我们在线”才是第一个”吃螃蟹”的!
我期望我和网上朋友们的互相交流和支持,于是,很正常的,我很想认识一下这”We Studio”的三个人。
(五)
在某个心血来潮的间操,我拉着十班网站的一个斑竹一起上楼,到了五班,喊出了这三位。
第一次见面,Buzz显得有些拘束,面部肌肉凝固不动,基本上没啥表情,不过见过面,就等于认识了。
从虚拟走到现实竟如此简单,这,就是年轻人。
(六)
简简单单认识了,而”一不留神”,便成了朋友–而且是很默契的那种。这是后话,我先在这里埋个”伏笔”。
其实,说”一不留神”也不怎么恰当,应该算是”水到渠成”吧!
那个年月,咱没听过啥叫oicq,不懂得怎么去申请”网上聊天室”,于是,”我们在线”的留言版成了众多网友互相沟通的场所。在这里,无拘无束地,说几句话,写几行字,扯几句皮,说说自己的事儿给大家听,写点感悟和大家分享……
我这人向来不甘寂寞,成了这儿的常客,有事儿没事儿的发个帖子–我相信即使是单纯的”灌水”,斑竹也会高兴的。
而我前脚贴完,他后脚便会紧跟着”回复”,虽然经常话不多,也说不出什么惊人之语,但这表明了一种对网友认真负责和欢迎的态度。
Buzz是斑竹,而且是很称职的那种。
似乎一切很平常,但你知道,讲故事总要讲出点儿波澜,否则平平淡淡的,没人爱听。
(七)
我们的故事也是一样,平静中有了点儿波澜。
稍微懂得点儿网络知识的朋友都知道,网页上特别是个人网页上面,都有一个能够计数的小东西,叫”计数器”,它记录着自己网页的客流量,当然,这计数器上面的数儿越大,表明你的网站就越热门,越吸引人,越成功。
我做的”青春在线”用的计数器是”刷新型”的,而他们的不是。
通俗一点儿说吧,就是可能一个网友访问他们的页面,计数器只会跳一下,而我们的网页,托”刷新型”的福,可能会成倍地往上涨,有些”作弊”的嫌疑。
过了不久,我们计数器上面的数字就比他们的大了。
可能这种事儿发生在谁身上心里都不会平衡吧,Buzz也是,在我们和他们的留言版上,他以一种让我感到很”酸”的口气留下了一段话,说什么”……大家不要’上当’!!!’青春在线’的计数器是刷新型的……”醋话云云,我看后大笑,笑他一个大男生还这么容易”吃醋”,真是可爱。于是我想恶作剧逗逗他,强忍住笑,以一种极其严厉的口吻”义愤填膺”地”严肃声明”:”我可从来不会在人家的留言版上说什么’刷新型’之类的话……这样做是不友好的……”
Buzz看了,很快给我写了信,信中言辞恳切,态度诚恳,说”我想我们之间有些误会,我们应该好好地开诚布公地谈一谈……”
我更是笑得肚子疼,逗他玩儿,他还真当真了,不过玩笑到此,看得出来他是个挺认真的人,于是告诉他,他还不了解我,我这人就这个脾气,嬉笑成性,从来都是爱开玩笑,根本不会生气的。
所谓”不打不相识”,我们就这样,通过一场小”误会”,算作熟识了吧。
(八)
熟识,未必就是朋友;而是朋友,则必定早已熟识。
有时候,我想起Buzz,会感觉我们之间的感情阶段是通过网上实时信息传送技术的发展而发展的。
“青春在线”从1.0版到3.0版;”我们在线”也从Beta版走到了3.0。
接下来,我们网页上都有了聊天室,可以即时的聊天了。
我还申请了oicq。
一个小小的oicq,又让我们对对方在网上的出没了如指掌。上网后的一声招呼,

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Gossip

archi-gossip(updated~)

Archi…Archi…..my dear architecture…..

妈的…………用英语也烦…………拿汉语发牢骚…………

破建筑作业……做了一个多月了……拖的自己最初的想法都丢下水道里了……

现在这个差不多的最终方案还好在我的第三个方案的基础上没有被老师改多少,前两个方案都被老师无情的否决了……

强烈希望学校能调整现在园林院的课程安排方法,尤其到了现在全是专业课阶段,每个专业课应该集中在一端时间内上完,比如前两个月上建筑,后两个月上园设,听说国外的先进的建筑、艺术类学校都是这样设置课程的。象现在这样拖拖拉拉弄一个学期,开始学的什么东西到了后来都TMD忘光了…………

林大作为目前仍然被大家承认的业内最强学校(之一,还是加上之一吧……)就得有个最强的样子

还有那几个万恶的politics courses…不说了………谁心里都清楚

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Design

Olmsted’s Lecture

奥姆斯特德的一个Lecture,The Unplanned Growth of Cities,对于了解现代园林早期观念的形成有一定帮助。

The pioneering landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who helped design Central Park in New York City, described his vision of the role of parks in urban development in a speech given in Boston, Massachusetts, on February 15, 1870. He understood that the physical and mental well-being of a city’s population translated directly into its economic health. Olmsted also saw parks as emblems of social democracy where all classes of city dwellers could mingle in a rejuvenating environment. Olmsted eventually became discouraged by the lack of public support for his projects and spent his later efforts designing private parks for wealthy clients.

 Olmsted “The Unplanned Growth of Cities”

What accommodations for recreation can we provide which shall be so agreeable and so accessible to the great body of citizens, and which, while giving decided gratification, shall also cause those who resort to them for pleasure to subject themselves, for the time being, to conditions strongly counteractive to the special enervating conditions of the town? In the study of this question, all forms of recreation may, in the first place, be conveniently arranged under two general heads.… Games chiefly of mental skill, as chess, or athletic sports, as baseball, are examples of means of recreation of the first class, which may be termed exertive recreation; music and the fine arts generally of the second or receptive division.…

There is an instinctive inclination to this social, neighborly, unexertive form of recreation among all of us. In one way or another it is sure to be constantly operating upon those millions on millions of men and women who are to pass their lives within a few miles of where we now stand. To what extent it shall operate so as to develop health and virtue will, on many occasions, be simply a question of opportunity and inducement. And this question is one for the determination of which for a thousand years we here today are largely responsible.…

For this purpose neither of the forms of ground we have heretofore considered are at all suitable. We want a ground to which people may easily go after their day’s work is done, and where they may stroll for an hour, seeing, hearing, and feeling nothing of the bustle and jar of the streets—where they shall, in effect, find the city put far away from them. We want the greatest possible contrast with the streets and the shops and the rooms of the town which will be consistent with convenience and the preservation of good order and neatness. We want, especially, the greatest possible contrast with the restraining and confining conditions of the town, those conditions which compel us to walk circumspectly, watchfully, jealously, which compel us to look closely upon others without sympathy. Practically, what we most want is a simple, broad, open space of clean greensward, with sufficient play of surface and a sufficient number of trees about it to supply a variety of light and shade. This we want as a central feature. We want depth of wood enough about it not only for comfort in hot weather but to completely shut out the city from our landscapes.

The word "park," in town nomenclature, should, I think, be reserved for grounds of the character and purpose thus described.

Not only as being the most valuable of all possible forms of public places but regarded simply as a large space which will seriously interrupt crosstown communication wherever it occurs, the question of the site and bounds of the park requires to be determined with much more deliberation and art than is often secured for any problem of distant and extended municipal interests.… The park should, as far as possible, complement the town.

Openness is the one thing you cannot get in buildings. Picturesqueness you can get. Let your buildings be as picturesque as your artists can make them. This is the beauty of a town. Consequently, the beauty of the park should be the other. It should be the beauty of the fields, the meadow, the prairie, of the green pastures, and the still waters. What we want to gain is tranquillity and rest to the mind. Mountains suggest effort. But besides this objection there are others of what I may indicate as the housekeeping class. It is impossible to give the public range over a large extent of ground of a highly picturesque character, unless under very exceptional circumstances, and sufficiently guard against the occurrence of opportunities and temptations to shabbiness, disorder, indecorum, and indecency that will be subversive of every good purpose the park should be designed to fulfill.…

A park, fairly well managed near a large town, will surely become a new center of that town. With the determination of location, size, and boundaries should therefore be associated the duty of arranging new trunk routes of communication between it and the distant parts of the town existing and forecasted.

These may be either narrow informal elongations of the park, varying say from 200 to 500 feet in width and radiating irregularly from it, or if, unfortunately, the town is already laid out in the unhappy way that New York and Brooklyn, San Francisco and Chicago are, and, I am glad to say, Boston is not, on a plan made long years ago by a man who never saw a spring carriage and who had a conscientious dread of the Graces, then we must probably adopt formal parkways. They should be so planned and constructed as never to be noisy and seldom crowded, and so also that the straightforward movement of pleasure carriages need never be obstructed, unless at absolutely necessary crossings, by slow-going, heavy vehicles used for commercial purposes.

If possible, also, they should be branched or reticulated with other ways of a similar class, so that no part of the town should finally be many minutes’ walk from some one of them; and they should be made interesting by a process of planting and decoration, so that in necessarily passing through them, whether in going to or from the park, or to and from business, some substantial recreative advantage may be incidentally gained. It is a common error to regard a park as something to be produced complete in itself, as a picture to be painted on canvas. It should rather be planned as one to be done in fresco, with constant consideration of exterior objects, some of them quite at a distance and even existing as yet only in the imagination of the painter.…

The New York legislature of 1851 passed a bill providing for a park on the east side of the island. Afterward, the same legislature, precipitately and quite as an afterthought, passed the act under which the city took title to the site of the greater part of the present Central Park.… The question of the relative value of what is called offhand common sense, and of special, deliberate, businesslike study, must be settled in the case of the Central Park, by a comparison of benefit with cost. During the last four years, over 30 million visits have been made to the park by actual count, and many have passed uncounted. From 50,000 to 80,000 persons on foot, 30,000 in carriages, and 4,000 to 5,000 on horseback have often entered it in a day.

Among the frequent visitors, I have found all those who, a few years ago, believed it impossible that there should ever be a park in this republican country—and especially in New York of all places in this country—which would be a suitable place of resort for "gentlemen." They, their wives and daughters, frequent the park more than they do the opera or the church. There are many men of wealth who resort to the park habituall
y and regularly, as much so as businessmen to their places of business. Of course, there is a reason for it, and a reason based upon their experience.

As to the effect on public health, there is no question that it is already great. The testimony of the older physicians of the city will be found unanimous on this point. Says one: "Where I formerly ordered patients of a certain class to give up their business altogether and go out of town, I now often advise simply moderation and prescribe a ride in the park before going to their offices, and again a drive with their families before dinner. By simply adopting this course as a habit, men who have been breaking down frequently recover tone rapidly and are able to retain an active and controlling influence in an important business, from which they would have otherwise been forced to retire. I direct schoolgirls, under certain circumstances, to be taken wholly, or in part, from their studies and sent to spend several hours a day rambling on foot in the park."

The lives of women and children too poor to be sent to the country can now be saved in thousands of instances by making them go to the park. During a hot day in July last, I counted at one time in the park eighteen separate groups, consisting of mothers with their children, most of whom were under school age, taking picnic dinners which they had brought from home with them. The practice is increasing under medical advice, especially when summer complaint is rife.

The much greater rapidity with which patients convalesce and may be returned with safety to their ordinary occupations after severe illness, when they can be sent to the park for a few hours a day, is beginning to be understood. The addition thus made to the productive labor of the city is not unimportant.

The park, moreover, has had a very marked effect in making the city attractive to visitors, and in thus increasing its trade, and causing many who have made fortunes elsewhere to take up their residence and become taxpayers in it—a much greater effect in this way, beyond all question, than all the colleges, schools, libraries, museums, and art galleries which the city possesses. It has also induced many foreigners who have grown rich in the country, and who would otherwise have gone to Europe to enjoy their wealth, to settle permanently in the city.

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Design

LA ..from MS Encarta

摘自微软出品的百科全书软件Encarta,虽然内容不知道有没有经过业内人士的认同,但一些词汇确实对我们是非常有用的

What is Landscape Architecture


quote from Microsoft software Encarta Reference Library


Introduction

Landscape Architecture, the science and art of modifying land areas by organizing natural, cultivated, or constructed elements according to a comprehensive, aesthetic plan. These elements include topographical features such as hills, valleys, rivers, and ponds; growing things such as trees, shrubbery, grass, and flowers; and constructions such as buildings, terraces, roads, bridges, fountains, and statuary. No unalterable rules exist in landscape architecture because each plot of ground offers unique problems caused by variation in contour, climate, and surrounding areas.

Landscape architecture was formerly called landscape gardening and was limited to the creation of gardens around private dwellings. Today landscape architecture covers a much wider area of concerns, ranging from the setting out of small gardens to the ordering of parks, malls, and highways. It includes landscape gardening, which is now understood as the work done by commercial gardeners, who install and care for flowers and greenery according to the design of landscape architects. The landscape architect, who usually holds an academic degree in this field, has the same professional standing as an architect or engineer and receives a fee directly from the client. The landscape gardener may be a commercial contractor or an amateur, who landscapes the grounds of a private home. Most large-scale gardens are planned by landscape architects, who provide for grading and drainage as well as for decorative design. Small gardens usually do not require the services of a landscape architect.


PRINCIPLES

Whatever the scale of the project, the landscape architect first studies the site. Working alone or with a town planner, traffic engineer, or building architect, as the project requires, the landscape architect considers the proposed use for the site. Other considerations are the layout of the terrain, climate and soil conditions, and costs. Once this information is known, the landscape architect proceeds to actual design.

An overall plan is established, which might be a formal garden based on a symmetrical arrangement of geometric beds or an informal arrangement of planting to make as much use as possible of the natural characteristics of the site. A plan might also be for a Japanese garden emphasizing asymmetrical placement of rocks and sand, for a desert garden, or for a simplified massing of naturalistic shrubbery.

The landscape architect’s plan takes into account proportion and scale. A small walled garden, for example, is scaled to the close-range view of its occupant; a large park, however, benefits from spacious vistas and massive groupings of trees. The plan also takes advantage of natural land formations, such as hills or pools, or alters them. The plan may provide for subdivisions of space, whether these are a series of enclosures containing different colors or other variations or are loosely defined areas that flow into one another.

The landscape architect also considers contrasts in shady masses and open, sunny spaces, especially in relation to the climate. Contrasts in the size, color, and texture of plant material are also important. Planting may be designed according to season so that different parts of a garden bloom at different times. A successful plan also requires knowledge of plant characteristics, needs, and limitations. Other elements in a landscape architect’s plan may be fountains, streams, and pools; sculpture and benches; walls, walks, and terraces; and small structures such as gazebos, kiosks, and trellises.


Ancient World

As early as the 3rd millennium bc, the Egyptians planted gardens within the walled enclosures surrounding their homes. In time these gardens came to be formally laid out around a rectangular fish pond flanked by orderly rows of fruit trees and ornamental plants, as seen in tomb paintings.

In Mesopotamia, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the World. They included full-size trees planted on earth-covered terraces raised on stone vaults in a corner of the palace complex of Nebuchadnezzar II. In the highlands to the north, the Assyrians and Persians developed great tree-filled parks for hunting on horseback. They also planned rectangular walled formal gardens, irrigated by pools and canals and shaded by trees, usually set in vast barren plains. These gardens symbolized paradise and inspired Persian carpet designs.

In ancient Greece, sacred groves were preserved as the habitats of divinities. Greek houses included a walled court or garden usually surrounded by a colonnade. In 5th-century bc Athens public gardens and colonnaded walks attached to the Academy (“school”) and the Lyceum (“gymnasium”) were much frequented by philosophers and their disciples.

Roman houses, similar to Greek houses, included a colonnaded garden, as depicted in wall paintings at Pompeii and as described by Pliny the Elder. Villas on the hilly terrain near Rome were designed with terraced gardens. Rich Romans, such as Lucullus, Maecenas, and Sallust, laid out lavish pleasure grounds including porticoes, banqueting halls, and sculpture. The vast grounds of the Emperor Hadrian’s villa near Tivoli (2nd century ad) were magnificently landscaped. The Roman populace enjoyed gardens attached to the public baths.


NON-WESTERN WORLD

Katsura Detached Palace, Kyōto Katsura Detached Palace, in Kyōto, Japan, was completed about 1662, during the Edo period, for a prince of the imperial family. The buildings of the palace complex were designed to reflect the clean, simple lines of classic Japanese teahouses, with some innovative restatements. The surrounding garden was carefully planned and executed to achieve an integrated effect.FPG International, LLC/J. Kugler

The Muslims, living where the climate is generally hot and dry, were inspired by the desert oasis and the ancient Persian paradise garden centered on water. Muslim gardens were usually one or more enclosed courts surrounded by cool arcades and planted with trees and shrubs. They were enlivened with colored tilework, fountains and pools, and the interplay of light and shade. Before the 15th century, the Moors in Spain built such gardens at Córdoba, Toledo, and especially at the Alhambra in Granada. Similar gardens, in which flowers, fruit trees, water, and shade were arranged in a unified composition, were built by the Mughals in 17th- and 18th-century India. The most notable examples are the Taj Mahal gardens in Agra and the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore.

In China, palaces, temples, and houses were built around a series of courtyards, which might include trees and plants often in pots that could be changed with the seasons, and pools. The Imperial City in Beijing contained elaborate pleasure gardens with trees, artificial lakes and hillocks, bridges, and pavilions.

Japan has a long tradition of gardens inspired by Chinese and Korean models. In former times, palaces, temples, teahouses, and private houses all had garden settings that were closely integrated with the buildings. Kyōto was especially famous for its gardens. The gardens included pools and waterfalls; rocks, stone, and sand; and evergreens. They might also contain stone lanterns and sculptures and wooden bridges, gates, and pavilions. Every element of a garden was carefully planned, sometimes by Zen monks and painters, to create an effect of restraint, harmony, and peace, which is exemplified by the extant Katsura Detached Palace gardens in Kyōto. Such traditions continue to some extent in modern Japan and have influenced Western landscape
architects.


MEDIEVAL, RENAISSANCE, AND BAROQUE PERIODS

In medieval Europe, ravaged by invasions and incessant wars, gardens were generally small and enclosed for protection within the fortified walls of monasteries and castles. At the 9th-century Swiss abbey of St. Gall the large garden was divided into four areas, for herbs, vegetables, fruits, and flowers. The gardens of most monasteries were surrounded by cloistered walks and had a well or fountain at the center, possibly inspired by Persian gardens, which was intended to enhance meditation. Castles might have a kitchen or herb garden, a private ornamental garden for the lord and lady, and a larger grassy area for the pleasure of the court.

During the Renaissance in Italy when conditions became more stable, castles gave way to palaces and villas with extensive grounds landscaped in the Roman tradition. The architect of the house usually designed its setting as well, thus ensuring a harmonious relationship between the two. The symmetrical, classically inspired plan of the house was repeated in the grounds. Laid out along a central axis, avenues, walks, and steps led from terrace to terrace, which, wherever possible, afforded fine views of the countryside. Borders of tall, dark cypresses and clipped yew hedges, geometric flower beds, stone balustrades, fountains, and sculptures conformed strictly to the overall plan. Examples from the 15th century include the gardens of the Medici, Palmieri, and La Pietra villas in or near Florence. Among increasingly formal and elaborate villa complexes in the 16th century are the Villa Lante in Bagnaia and the Villa Farnese in Caprarola, both designed by Giacomo da Vignola. Others are the Villa Madama and the Villa Medici in Rome and the Villa d’Este in Tivoli.

Italian gardens of the 17th century became even more complex in the dramatic baroque style. They were distinguished by lavish use of serpentine lines, groups of sculptured allegorical figures in violent movement, and a multiplicity of spouting fountains and waterfalls. Examples are the Villa Aldobrandini in Frascati, Villa Garzoni in Collodi, Villa Giovio in Como, and the gardens on the Isola Bella in Lake Maggiore.


ROMANTIC PERIOD

In the late 18th century the rise of romanticism, with its emphasis on untamed nature, the picturesque, the past, and the exotic, led to important changes in landscape architecture as well as in other arts. The shift began in England. In place of the patterned formality of Le Nôtre’s designs, architects such as Capability Brown preferred a new, softer romantic style that imitated rather than disciplined nature. At such great houses as Blenheim Palace and Chatsworth, Brown replaced the parterres of symmetrically arranged flower beds and straight walks with sweeping lawns, sloping hills with curving paths, and rivers and ponds punctuated by informally planted groups of trees and shrubbery, to achieve the effect of a wilderness. The English landscape architect Humphry Repton modified the style, believing that a house was best set off by formal flower beds that merged by subtle degrees into a naturalistic background. These so-called English gardens often incorporated “follies,” fake medieval ruins and Roman temples, inspired by the 17th-century paintings of the Roman countryside by Claude Lorrain and his followers. Chinese pavilions and other exotica were inspired by engravings of Chinese gardens in travel books by such travelers as the architect Sir William Chambers.

The English romantic style spread to the rest of Europe by way of France, where a notable example of the style was created at Ermenonville. As late as the reign of Napoleon the English romantic style was employed by the engineer Jean Charles Adolphe Alphandin laying out the great parks of Paris, which exerted an immediate international influence. In Germany and Austria, the romantic style was enthusiastically endorsed by Prince Hermann von Puckler-Muskau, who created a romantic park on his estate near Berlin and published the influential Hints on Landscape Gardening (1835).

The romantic style was introduced in North America by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello, his Virginia estate. The most important example of this style is Central Park, New York City, designed in 1857 by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. It was the first major public example of landscape architecture in the U.S. and was so successful both as a municipal enterprise and as a work of art that by 1870 it had influenced the creation of public parks, many of them designed by Olmsted and Vaux, all over the nation. The profession of landscape architecture, as distinct from architecture and horticulture, was established largely through the success of Olmsted and Vaux, who also worked at the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. At about the same time, the Boston landscape architect Charles Eliot did much to further interest in metropolitan landscape parks as recreational areas that could relieve city congestion.


20TH CENTURY

Domestic architecture in the first half of the 20th century attempted to achieve a closer integration of the house with its surroundings, as seen in the works of Sven Markelius in Sweden, Alvar Aalto in Finland, and Frank Lloyd Wright in the U.S. In areas with mild climates, such as California, a garden might be continued within the house. The worldwide economic depression between the two world wars, however, forced a shift from domestic settings to large-scale public works, in which landscape architects and planners worked together on entire communities, regional areas, and vast state and national projects. The rising costs of labor and materials after World War II made careful planning imperative, especially in Europe and Asia, where entire cities had to be rebuilt within tightly restricted areas. In England, for example, the wholesale creation of new towns necessitated plans for the preservation of remaining open space, in which landscape architects played a significant role. In Canada and the U.S., landscape architects were far less constrained, although they shared the concerns of their European counterparts, such as the need for greenbelts around cities, for scenic preservation, and for low-cost maintenance. The proliferation of shopping malls, new suburbs, cultural centers, revitalized urban cores, and new educational facilities has given landscape architects in the later decades of this century unparalleled opportunities to refine their art and to create new forms. They have become, in conjunction with their colleagues in architecture, engineering, planning, and public office, the shapers of both the future and the present physical environment.

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